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您现在的位置:首页 > 高考总复习 > 高考知识点 > 高考英语知识点 > 新课标人教版高三英语第二轮复习专题讲座七:不同体裁文章的阅读方法

新课标人教版高三英语第二轮复习专题讲座七:不同体裁文章的阅读方法

来源:网络 2009-09-04 09:10:42

  不同体裁文章的阅读方法

  不同体裁的文章,作者的写作手法不同,表达的方式千差万别。体裁不同,要求使用的阅读方法也不一样。因此,掌握不同体裁的文章的阅读方法有助于我们提高阅读效率、加深对文章的理解。下面分别谈谈记叙文、说明文、议论文、应用文的阅读方法和技巧。

  第一节 记叙文的阅读方法

  记叙文讲述的是发生在当前或过去或将来事情的经过。简而言之,记叙文就是讲故事,包括人物或故事情节。常见的记叙文根据其用途可分为文学记叙文和说明记叙文:文学记叙文以虚构为主,如趣闻逸事、传说、寓言、传奇故事、短篇小说、科幻小说等;说明记叙文以事实为依据,包括历史、传记、新闻报道、日记等。无论哪一种记叙文作者都要交代何人何时何地为什么、怎么样、干了何事等等,这也就是我们常说的“5Ws and 1H”。这是我们在阅读记叙文时要首先了解的,接着按照线索弄清事情的来龙去脉,就能理解整个故事。

  特别值得注意的是:记叙文的叙事顺序有顺叙和倒叙两种,有时候作者为了吸引读者会采用倒叙的方法,即不按照事情发展的先后顺序来叙述,而是从最重要、最能引人入胜的事件开始,然后再回过头来追叙故事的开端和经过。阅读时要学会从事情本身的发展去理解故事情节而不要只看事件在文中出现的先后位置。

  另外,讲故事必定有其目的:或证明某一理论,或阐明某一概念,或赞美某种美德,或谴责某种罪恶等等。我们在阅读时要通过作者的重要细节描写联系故事情节去领会作者的意图,对作者重墨泼就的细节描写要重点关注。

  概括起来一句话:读记叙文的关键是抓情节。 抓住了故事情节,就理解了文章的脉络,其他的就迎刃而解了。

  下面请阅读一篇记叙文,看看你能不能抓住故事的主要情节。

  (05浙江卷 A 篇)

  Compassion is a desire within us to help others.With effort, we can translate compassion into action.An experience last weekend showed me this is true.I work part-time in a supermarket across from a building for the elderly.These old people are our main customers, and it’s not hard to lose patience over their slowness.But last Sunday, one aged gentleman appeared to teach me a valuable lesson.This untidy man walked up to my register(收款机) with a box of biscuits.He said he was out of cash(现金), had just moved into his room, and had nothing in his cupboards.He asked if we could let him have the food on trust.He promised to repay me the next day.

  I couldn’t help staring at him.I wondered what kind of person he had been ten or twenty years before, and what he would be like if luck had gone his way.I had a hurt in my heart for this kind of human soul, all alone in the world.I told him that I was sorry, but store rules didn’t allow me to do so.I felt stupid and unkind saying this, but I valued my joB.

  Just then, another man, standing behind the first, spoke up.If anything, he looked more pitiable.“Charge it to me,” was all he saiD.

  What I had been feeling was pity.Pity is soft and safe and easy.Compassion, on the other hand, is caring in action.I thanked the second man but told him that was not allowed either.Then I reached into my pocket and paid for the biscuits myself.I reached into my pocket because these two men had reached into my heart and taught me compassion.

  解析:故事采用顺叙的叙事方法,主要情节发展如下:One aged gentleman begged me to have the food on trust and promised to repay the next day.---- I told him the store rules didn’t allow me to do so.---- Another man wanted me to charge the food to him.----I paid for the biscuits myself. 作者用第一人称讲述自己亲身经历的这段故事,让人觉得亲切可信,同时也增强了文章的感染力。作者说自己通过这段故事学会了compassion(同情),事实上也是在号召读者多伸出同情之手,共建和谐社会。

  抓住了故事的情节,了解了作者的写作意图。再来做理解题,就容易多了。请看看下面几道理解题:

  41.The aged gentleman who wanted to buy the biscuits ______.

  A.promised to obey the store rules

  B.forgot to take any money with him

  C.hoped to have the food first and pay later

  D.could not afford anything more expensive

  42.Which of the following best describes the old gentleman?

  A.kind and lucky  B.poor and lonely

  C.friendly and helpful D.hurt and disappointed

  43.The writer acted upon the store rules because ______.

  A.he wanted to keep his present job

  B.he felt no pity for the old gentleman

  C.he considered the old man dishonest

  D.he expected someone else to pay for the old man

  44.What does the writer learn from his experience?

  A.Wealth is more important than anything else.

  B.Helping others is easier said than done.

  C.Experience is better gained through practice.

  D.Obeying the rules means more than compassion.

  (参考答案:CBAB)

  【实战演练练习十六】(05天津卷 C篇)

  The house was quiet at 5 A.m. and Tim’s mother was asleep. Only the sound of the big freezer broke the quiet. He’d dreamt of the cave last night? The purring (轻微颤动声) of the freezer had been the sea .

  Tim pulled on a sweater and put some apples into his schoolbag. It was too early for breakfast. He’d eat after he’d been through the cave, sitting on the rocks and staring at the seA.

  He wished he had a proper pack. His schoolbag would have to do. What else? Sandwiches— but his mother might wake up if he started pulling out bread for sandwiches, she’d want to know why he had to leave so early. He settled for some biscuits, and left a note stuck to the table.

  Gone to Michael’s Back tonight . Tim .

  The sky was high and soft and light outside, though the sun still wasn’t up. Even the highway up the hill was quiet as he made his way down the street. The wind from the sea was fresh and sweet.

  The sandhills still breathed heat from yesterday’s sun, though the top of the sand was cool. He ran down to the beach impatiently, but there was no one, just dry sand dancing in the early wind and seabirds marching up and down watching the waves.

  The light changed suddenly. The first rays of sunlight stretched (延伸) across the sea . The sun was pushing its way over the edge of the worlD.

  Over the first rocks, along to the point. Tim glanced back. The beach was still empty. The sun sailed higher in the sky.

  He could see the cave now, even darker in the morning light. The sand turned silver then dark gold as the water flowed away from it. He had to force himself to go closer. Why was it so much more mysterious (神秘)now? But it would be silly to go back now after so much trouble. He needn’t go in all the way …

  43.What did Tim do at the beginning of the story?

  A.He left the house quietly. B.He had breakfast at home.

  C.He left a note on the freezer. D.He put a sweater in his schoolbag.

  44.“He settled for some biscuits ” (in Paragraph 3) means that Tim           .

  A.had to leave the biscuits on the table .

  B.liked biscuits better than sandwiches

  C.had to take biscuits instead of sandwiches

  D.could only find some biscuits in the kitchen

  45.What made it possible for Tim to see the entry to the cave?

  A.The height of the first rocks.

  B.The ups and downs of the waves.

  C.The change in the position of the sun.

  D.The vast stretch of the sunlit beach.

  46.Whish of the following statements is TRUE according to the story?

  A.The sea looked like a piece of golD.

  B.Seabirds flew away when Tim arriveD.

  C.Tim was the only person on the beach.

  D.The sky got dark as Tim reached the cave.

  47.In the story , Tim’s mood (心情) changed from        .

  A.loneliness to craziness B.anxiousness to excitement

  C.helplessness to happiness  D.eagerness to nervousness

  【实战演练练习十七】(05上海卷 B篇)

  “Come in. Kim. Have a seat, please.” said Bill Williams, the manager. This was Kim’s first experience with an assessment. After only six months he was due for a raise if this assessment was satisfactory.

  “Kim,” began Bill Williams. “I am very pleased with the quality of your work. I have nothing but praise for your devotion and your hard work. My only concern is that you are not active enough in putting forward your suggestions.”

  “But,” Replied Kim, “I have always completed every assignment you have given me. Mr. Williams.”

  “I know that, Kim. And please, call me Bill. But what I expect is for you to think independently and introduce new ideas. I need more input from you —more feedback on how things are going I don’t need a “yes man”. You never tell me what you think. You just smile as though everything is fine.”

  “But,” said Kim, “I feel that since you are my superior, it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do.”

  “I’m not asking you to tell me what to do, but what you think we could do. To make suggestions. I employed you because I respect your experience in this field, but you are not communicating your thoughts to me.”

  “Yes. I see I’m not accustomed to this, but I will try to do as you say …, Bill”

  “Good, then, I expect to hear more from you at staff meetings or at any other time you want to discuss an idea with me.”

  “Yes, of course. Thank you Mr. Will…Bill.”

  69.Kim is the sort of employee who         .

  A.does not speak out his own ideas  B.is not devoted to the job

  C.laughs too much over work  D.can not finish his work on time

  70.The word “presumptuous” in the middle of the passage is closest in meaning to “      ” .

  A.full of respect   B.too confident and rude

  C.lacking in experience  D.too shy and quiet

  71.From the passage, we can learn that        .

  A.Kim has been invited to take charge of the staff meetings

  B.the manager appreciates those who just do what he tells them to do

  C.the manager is pleased with Kim’s hard work and his suggestions

  D.Kim is likely to have a higher salary if he can pass the assessment

  【实战演练练习十八】(06安徽卷 B篇)

  People fell in love with Elizabeth Taylor in 1944, when she starred in National Velvet-the story of Velvet Brown, a young girl who wins first place in a famous horse race, At first, the producers of the movie told Taylor that she was too small to play the part of Velvet. However, they waited for her for a few months as she exercised and trained—and added three inches to her height in four months! Her acting in National Velvet is still considered the best by a child actress.

  Elizabeth Taylor was born in London in 1932.Her parents, both Americans, had moved there for business reasons. When World war II started, the Taylor moved to Beverly Hills, California, and there Elizabeth started acting in movies. After her success as a child star, Taylor had no trouble moving into adult (成人) roles and won twice for Best Actress: Butterfield 8(1960) and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf ? (1966)

  Taylor’s fame(名声)and popularity gave her a lot of power with the movie industry, so she was able to demand very high pay for her movies. In 1963, she received $1 million for her part in Cleopatra—the highest pay received by any star up to that time.

  Elizabeth Taylor is a legend (传奇人物) of our time. Like Velvet Brown in National Velvet, she has been lucky, she has beauty, fame and wealth. But she is also a hard worker. Taylor seldom acts in movies any more. Instead, she puts her time and efforts into her businesses, and into helping others — several years ago, she founded an organization that has raised more than $40 million for research and education.

  60.The producers didn’t let Taylor play the part of Velvet at first because they thought she           .

  A.was small in size      B.was too young

  C.did not play well enough     D.did not show much interest

  61.What Elizabeth Taylor and Velvet Brown had in common was that they were both          .

  A.popular all their lives     B.famous actresses

  C.suecessful when very young   D.rich and kind-hearted

  62.Taylor became Best Actress at the age of          .

  A.12         B.28                  C.31          D.34

  63.In her later life , Elizabeth Taylor devoted herself to             .

  A.doing business and helping others

  B.turning herself into a legend

  C.collecting money for the poor

  D.going about research and education work

  第二节 说明文的阅读方法

  说明文用平实的语言客观地解释或探讨各种问题,如机器的制造过程、自然或社会现象产生的原因、工程项目的规划或问题的解决方案等等,介绍自然科学、社会科学领域的最新成果,社会经济发展过程中出现的新生事物等等。说明事物可采用多种方式:例如举例、分类法或类比、对比法,给事物下定义或分析事物产生的原因以及后果。举例说明文使用例子说明事物阐明观点;分解展开法着重于事物的区别、差异,分类展开法则强调事物的相似之处;类比说明事物如何相似,对比说明事物如何不同;因果说明文表明事物发生的原因及结果。除了用文字说明以外,说明文中常常使用数据、图片等资料。

  无论采用什么说明方法,作者都是为了说明事物的本质特征、清晰地展现所说明的事物。

  因此,阅读说明文的关键是:抓住事物的特点,即抓住说明对象的本质特征。

  下面具体看看两篇说明文。

  (05 重庆卷 B 段)

  Reading is very important to help you learn English. To learn as much as you can from reading, you need to read different kinds of English. This book provides not only different kinds of English but also a good way to check your reading ability.

  There are four parts in the book:

  Part 1 is Messages: In this part somebody wants to send information in writing to somebody else.

  There is a test on timetables and a test on text messages.

  Part 2 is People: In this part all the tests are about people. For example, there is an informal letter between friends. There is formal (正式的) English in biography (传记) . There is a job application as a model to help with your writing, as well as testing your reading.

  Part 3 is Places: In this part, too. Many different kinds of English are shown, some informal and some formal. There is the informal English of a holiday postcarD.There is also the formal English in a letter of complaint.

  Part 4 is Things: You will find some descriptive writing in this part. There are descriptions of clothes and of a computer.

  You can do these tests in any order you like, or you can do all the tests with a formal or informal text.

  I enjoyed writing this book and I hope you enjoy using it.

  解析:这篇文章使用浅显平实的语言详细介绍了这本书的4个部分的内容。说明的重点在书的内容,这本书的特征体现在它的内容。抓住了这一特点,也就读懂了这篇文章,再来做理解题,就容易多了。看看相关的理解题:

  59.We can find the introduction to a product in         .

  A.Part 1 B.Part 2 C.Part 3 D.Part 4

  60.Which of the following is most probably written in informal English?

  A.A letter of complaint. B.A computer handbook.

  C.A letter to a frienD. D.A story of a president.

  61.The passage is most probably written for         .

  A.test designers  B.students  C.test-takers  D.teachers

  62.What is the best title of the book?

  A.Test Your Reading  B.Help with Your Writing

  C.Learn Different Kinds of English  D.Practise English in Different Ways

  (参考答案:DCBA)

  (05 山东卷  E篇)

  A device that stops drivers from falling asleep at the wheel is about to undergo testing at Department of Transport laboratories and could go on sale within 12 months.

  The system, called Driver Alert, aims to reduce deadly road accidents by 20%--40% that are caused by tiredness. Airline pilots can also use it to reduce the 30% of all pilot-error accidents that are related to fatigue.

  Driver Alert is based on a computerized wristbanD.The device, worn by drivers or pilots, gives out a sound about every four minutes during a car journey. After each sound the driver must respond by squeezing the steering wheel(方向盘). A sensor in the wristband detects this pressing action and measures the time between the sound and the driver’s response.

  Tiredness is directly related to a driver’s response time. Usually, a watchful driver would take about 400 milliseconds to respond, but once that falls to more than 500 milliseconds, it suggests that the driver is getting sleepy.

  In such cases the device gives out more regular and louder sounds, showing that the driver should open a window or stop for a rest. If the driver’s response continues to slow down, the sounds become more frequent until a nonstop alarm warns that the driver must stop as soon as possible.

  The device has been delivered to the department’s laboratories for testing. If these tests, scheduled for six months’ time, are successful, the markets will bring the product to market within about a year.

  解析:这篇文章说明Driver Alert这一驾驶员警报装置。抓住了它的工作原理、功能作用就抓住了它的本质特点。3、4、5自然段是理解的重点:开车时驾驶员腕带上的警报会每隔4分钟发出声音,驾驶员听到声音按压方向盘作出反应。传感器会探测到从听到声音到作出反应之间的时间差,如果这个时间差大于500毫秒,说明驾驶员疲劳打瞌睡。了解了这个装置的特点,就读懂了这篇文章。看看理解题:

  72.According to the text, Driver Alert _____.

  A.aims to reduce tiredness-related accidents

  B.has gone through testing at laboratories

  C.aims to prevent drivers from sleeping

  D.has been on sale for 12 months

  73.How should a driver respond to the sounds from Driver Alert?

  A.By sounding a warning.  B.By touching the wristbanD.

  C.By checking the driving time. D.By pressing the steering wheel.

  74.We can learn from the text that the driver needs to stop for a break when his response time

  is _____.

  A.about 400 milliseconds   B.below 500 milliseconds

  C.over 500 milliseconds  D.about 4 minutes

  75.When the driver gets sleepy while driving, Driver Alert _____.

  A.moves more regularly B.stops working properly

  C.opens the window for the driver   D.sounds more frequently and loudly

  (参考答案:ADCD)

  【实战演练练习十九】(05辽宁卷 D篇)

  While income worry is a rather common problem of the aged, loneliness is another problem that aged parents may face. Of all the reasons that explain their loneliness, a large geographical distance between parents and their children is the major one. This phenomenon(现象)is commonly known as “Empty Nest Syndrome”(空巢综合症).

  In order to seek better chances outside their countries, many young people have gone abroad, leaving their parents behind with no clear idea of when they will return home. Their parents spend countless lonely days and nights, taking care of themselves, in the hope that someday their children will come back to stay with them. The fact that most of these young people have gone to Europeanized or Americanized societies makes it unlikely that they will hold as tightly to the value of duty as they would have if they had not left their countries. Whatever the case, it has been noted that the values they hold do not necessarily match what they actually do. This geographical and cultural distance also prevents the grown-up children from providing response(回应)in time for their aged parents living by themselves.

  The situation in which grown-up children live far away from their aged parents has been described as “distant parent phenomenon”, which is common both in developed countries and in developing countries. Our society has not yet been well prepared for “Empty Nest Syndrome”.

  68.According to the passage, the loneliness of aged parents is mainly caused by _________.

  A.their earlier experience of feeling lonely

  B.the unfavorable living conditions in their native countries

  C.the common worry about their income

  D.the geographical distance between parents and children

  69.Many young people have gone abroad, leaving their aged parents behind, to _________.

  A.live in the countries with more money

  B.seek a better place for their aged parents

  C.continue their studies abroad

  D.realize their dreams in foreign countries

  70.If young people go abroad, _________.

  A.they do not hold to the value of duty at all

  B.they can give some help to their parents back home

  C.they cannot do what they should for their parents

  D.they believe what they actually do is right

  71.From the last paragraph, we can infer that ________.

  A.the situations in the developed and developing countries are different

  B.“Empty Nest Syndrome” has arrived unexpectedly in our society

  C.children will become independent as soon as they go abroad

  D.the aged parents are not fully prepared for “Empty Nest Syndrome”

  【实战演练练习二十】(05辽宁卷 E篇)

  There are two kinds of physical activity which require special training. The first demands exact careful movements of the muscles(肌肉). This kind of activity must be strictly controlled because even a slight movement in the wrong direction will lead a mistake. To type quickly, for example, a person needs training; the slightest movement of a finger in the wrong direction may cause a spelling mistake. A dancer who has to dance on the point of her shoes or turn around on one foot must be trained for a long period of time before she can sense her own center and balance herself. You may have seen a girl walking on a rope across an empty space, which, too, requires a lot of practice.

  The second kind of physical activity needs greater strength or extra effort. Most of us get tired if we try to run half a mile without stopping, but a specially-trained person can do this without much effort. Three years ago, some scientists carried out experiments, which produced meaningful and unexpected results. They wanted to find out whether a certain amount of physical exercise would injure those suffering from heart problems. They selected some male patients and trained them in continuous bicycle riding. They were surprised to find that the harmful effect of given amount of physical effort was actually less on the hearts of these trained patients than on those of the patients who were not similarly traineD.This is important because it shows that regular physical exercise enables us to make better use of the oxygen(氧气)we breathe in and that this training, in fact, reduces the amount of work our hearts do. Many tasks which are hard for untrained people are not hard at all for trained people.

  72.The first kind of physical activity must be strictly controlled because _________.

  A.a mistake in the wrong direction is dangerous to the fingers

  B.a wrong movement in a direction will cause no mistakes

  C.a movement in the wrong direction will cause a mistake

  D.a slight movement of a finger will lead to a mistake

  73.What must a dancer do before she can balance herself?

  A.She must dance on the point of her shoes.

  B.She must receive long-time training.

  C.She must turn around on one foot.

  D.She must perform again and again.

  74.The experiments done by some scientists showed that ________.

  A.some male patients were asked to ride bicycles regularly in the experiments

  B.the physical exercise had more harmful effect on the hearts of the untrained patients

  C.the physical exercise was harmless to the male patients with heart trouble

  D.the physical exercise could be helpful for the patients to take in more oxygen

  75.What would be the best title for this text?

  A.Training Our Bodies B.Physical Activities

  C.Movement Training D.Extra Body Effort

  【实战演练练习二十一】(05广东卷 C篇)

  "Have you ever been out on a boat and felt it lifted up by a wave? Or have you jumped in the

  water and felt the rush of energy as waves came over you?" asked Jamie Taylor of the Wave Energy Group at the University of Edinburgh."There is certainly a lot of energy in waves," he said.Scientists are working to use that energy to make electricity.Most waves are created when

  winds blow across the ocean."The wind starts out by making little ripples (涟漪) , but if they

  keep on blowing, those ripples get bigger and bigger and turn into waves," Taylor saiD.“Waves

  are one of nature 's ways of picking up energy and then sending it off on a journey.”

  When waves come toward the shore, people can set up dams to block the water and send it

  through a large wheel called a turbine (涡轮机) .The turbine can then power an electrical

  generator to produce electricity.

  "The resource is huge," said Janet Swain of the World watch Institute."We will never run out of wave power." Besides, wave energy does not create the same pollution as other energy sources, such as oil or coal.Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth's surface - that would make wave power seem ideal for creating energy throughout the world, though there are some weak points yet to overcome.

  Swain said that wave power still costs too much money.She also said that its effects on sea animals are still unknown.What is more, wave power could affect fishing and boat traffiC.

  Traditional sources of energy like oil and gas may someday run out."Demand for energy to

  power our TVs and computers, drive our cars, and heat and cool our homes is rising rapidly throughout the world," Swain said.In the future when you turn on a light, an ocean wave could be

  providing the electricity!

  64.The writer uses the two questions at the beginning of the passage to _______.

  A.test the readers' knowledge about waves

  B.draw the readers' attention to the topic

  C.show Jamie Taylor's importance

  D.invite the readers to answer them

  65.The underlined phrase "picking up" (paragraph 2) is closest in meaning to _______.

  A.starting again B.speeding up C.gathering D.improving

  66.We can make better use of wave energy if we _______.

  A.shorten its journey to thousands of homes

  B.build more small power stations on the oceans

  C.reduce the cost of turning it into electric power

  D.quicken the steps of producing electricity

  67.It can be inferred that some day we might not worry about ________.

  A.air pollution  B.our boat traffic

  C.our power supply D.our supply of sea fish

  【实战演练练习二十二】(06安徽卷 D篇)

  To extinguish (熄灭) different kinds of fires, several types of fire extinguishers have been inventeD.They must be ready for immediate use when fire breaks out. Most portable (手提式的) kinds operate for less than a minute, so they are useful only on small fires. The law requires ships, trains, buses and planes to carry extinguishers.

  Since fuel, oxygen (氧气) and heat must be present in order for fire to exist, one or more of these things must be removed or reduced to extinguish a fire. If the heat is reduced by cooling the material below a certain temperature, the fire goes out. The cooling method is the most common way to put out a fire. Water is the best cooling material because it is low in cost and easy to get.

  Another method of extinguishing fire is by cutting off the oxygen. This is usually done by covering the fire with sand, steam or some other things. A blanket may be used do cover a small fire.

  A third method is called separation, which includes removing the fuel, or material easy to burn, from a fire, so that it can find no fuel.

  The method that is used to put out a fire depends upon the type of fire. Fires have been grouped in three classes. Fires in wood, paper, cloth and the like are called Class A fires. These materials usually help keep the fire on. Such fires can be stopped most readily by cooling with water.

  69.If a fire breaks out on a bus, which of the follow should be ready there for you to use?

  A.Sand        B.Water

  C.A blanket.       D.An extinguisher.

  69.To cover a small piece of burning wood with a basin in order to stop the fire is an example of         .

  A.separating the fire      B.reducing the heat

  C.removing the fuel      D.cutting off the oxygen

  70.In choosing how to put out a fire, we should first be clear about          .

  A.when it breaks out     B.how it comes about

  C.what kind it is      D.where it takes place

  71.What would the author probably discuss in the paragraph that follows?

  A.Another class of fires     B.Another type of extinguishers

  C.How fires break out.     D.How fires can be preventeD.

  【实战演练练习二十三】(06江苏卷 E篇)

  A new eight-kilometre road is under construction that links the port area with the motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the centre of the city. As part of the project, two four-kif0metre road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 metres below the surface and are 12 metres wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction.

  In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electronic signs at frequent intervals (间隔). They show traffic conditions ahead, and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining(混凝土衬砌).

  Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system (排水系统), just below the road surface on one aide, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel, and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones.

  72.Each of the tunnels under construction is ___________.

  A.eight kilometres long and twenty metres wide

  B.eight kilometres long and six metres wide

  C.four kilometres long and twenty metres wide

  D.four kilometres long and six metres wide

  73.Which part of the tunnel in the diagram is used to pipe out extra water?

  A.1.  B.3.      C.5.   D.6.

  74.Driving in the tunnel, one can know the traffic conditions ahead through ________.

  A.the lights  B.the electronic signs  C.the trucks and cars   D.the emergency phones

  75.The passage is mainly about _____________.

  A.the construction of a road                  B.the design of a road

  C.the construction of two tunnels              D.the design of two tunnels

  第三节 议论文的阅读方法

  议论文也就是说理性的文章,一般由论点、论据和论证过程组成。议论文都要提出论题、观点、提供充分的证据(evidence),使用一定的逻辑方法证明观点或得出结论。

  阅读议论文我们要抓住论题、抓住作者提出的观点、给出的例证及最后得出的结论。抓住了论题、抓住了观点,我们就把握了中心,再结合作为论据的诸多事例和理由之间以及它们和观点/结论之间的内在联系,我们就能理解文章的结构。因此,阅读议论文的关键是:抓论题、抓观点。

  看看下面一篇例文:

  (05 江苏卷 E段)

  The twentieth century saw greater changes than any century before changes for the better, changes for the worse, changes that brought a lot of benefits to human beings, changes that put man in danger .Many things caused the changes, but, in my opinion, the most important was the progress in science.

  Scientific research in physics and biology has vastly broadened our views. It has given us a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter and of the universe, it has brought us a better understanding of the nature of life and of its continuous development. Technology in the application of science has made big advances that have benefited us in nearly every part of life.

  The continuation of such activities in the twenty-first century will result in even greater advantages to human beings: in pure science—a wider and deeper knowledge in all fields of learning; in applied science—a more reasonable sharing of material benefits, and better protection of the environment.

  Sadly, however, there is another side to the picture. The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankinD.The application of science and technology to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction has created a real danger to the continued existence of the human race on this planet. We have seen this happen in the case of nuclear weapons, Although their actual use has so far occurred only in the Second World War, the number of nuclear weapons that were produced and made ready for use was so large that if the weapons had actually been used, the result could have been the ruin of the human race, as well as of many kinds of animals.

  William Shakespeare saiD.“The web of our life is of a mingled yarn(纱线), good and ill together. “The above brief review of the application of only one part of human activities—science seems to prove what Shakespeare saiD.But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war?

  解析:作者在第一段提出论题:The progress in science caused the changes in the twentieth century. 接下来,第二、三段作者提出论据:The progress in science has brought  us advantages and the continuation of the progress will surely result in even greater advantages.第四段作者从另一方面提出论据:The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankinD.再接下来,按行文结构作者应该作出结论,但作者在第五段并没有直接说出不言自明的结论(We should separate the good from the ill.),而是用了几个问句:But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war? 这样可引起读者对结论的深入思考,引起读者的重视。

  看看下面的理解题:

  72.Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

  73.From the fourth paragraph, we can infer that       .

  A.a great many nuclear weapons were actually used for war

  B.a large number of nuclear weapons should have been used for war

  C.the author is doubtful about the ruin of human beings by nuclear weapons

  D.the author is anxious about the huge number of nuclear weapons on the earth

  74.The underlined word “mingled” in the last paragraph most probably means     .

  A.simple B.mixed C.sad D.happy

  75.What do you think the author is most likely to suggest if he continues to write?

  A.Further application of science to war.

  B.More reading of William Shakespeare.

  C.Proper use of science in the new century.

  D.Effective ways to separate the good from the ill.

  (参考答案:ADBD)

  【实战演练练习二十四】(05北京卷 C篇)

  How could we possibly think that keeping animals in cages in unnatural environments-mostly for entertainment purposes-is fair and respectful?

  Zoo officials say they are concerned about animals. However, most zoos remain “collections” of interesting “things” rather than protective habitats(栖息地). Zoos teach people that it is acceptable to keep animals bored, lonely, and far from their natural homes.

  Zoos claim(声称) to educate people and save endangered species(物种), but visitors leave zoos without having learned anything meaningful about the animals’ natural behavior, intelligence, or beauty. Zoos keep animals in small spaces or cages, and most signs only mention the species’ name, diet, and natural range(分布区). The animals’ normal behavior is seldom noticed because zoos don’t usually take care of the animals’ natural needs.

  The animals are kept together in small spaces, with no privacy and little opportunity for mental and physical exercise. This results in unusually and self-destructive behavior called zoochosis. A worldwide study of zoos found that zoochosis is common among animals kept in small spaces or cages. Another study showed that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars, and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain.

  Furthermore, most animals in zoos are not endangereD.Captive breeding(圈养繁殖) of endangered big cats. Asian elephants, and other species has not resulted in their being sent back to the wilD.Zoos talk a lot about their captive breeding programs because they do not want people to worry about a species dying out. In fact, baby animals also attract a lot of paying customers. Haven’t we seen enough competitions to name baby animals?

  Actually, we will save endangered species only if we save their habitats and put an end to the reasons people kill them. Instead of supporting zoos, we should support groups that work to protect animals’ natural habitats.

  64.How would the author describe the animals’ life in zoos?

  A.Dangerous. B.Unhappy. C.Natural. D.Easy.

  65.In the state of zoochosis, animals _________.

  A.remain in cages  B.behave strangely

  C.attack other animals D.enjoy moving around

  66.What does the author try to argue in the passage?

  A.Zoos are not worth the public support.

  B.Zoos fail in their attempt to save animals.

  C.Zoos should treat animals as human beings.

  D.Zoos use animals as a means of entertainment.

  67.The author tries to persuade readers to accept his argument mainly by _________.

  A.pointing out the faults in what zoos do

  B.using evidence he has collected at zoos

  C.questioning the way animals are protected

  D.discussing the advantages of natural habitats

  68.Although he argues against zoos, the author would still agree that __________.

  A.zoos have to keep animals in small cages

  B.most animals in zoos are endangered species

  C.some endangered animals are reproduced in zoos

  D.it’s acceptable to keep animals away from their habitats

  【实战演练练习二十五】(04上海卷 C篇)

  We are all interested in equality, but while some people try to protect the school and examination system in the name of equality, other, still in the name of equality, want only to destroy it.

  Any society which is interested in equality of opportunity and standards of achievement must regularly test its pupils. The standards may be changed—no examination is perfect—but to have to tests or examinations would mean the end of equality and of standards. There are groups of people who oppose this view and who do not believe either in examinations or in any controls in school or on teachers. This would mean that everything would depend on luck since every pupil would depend on the efficiency, the values and the purpose of each teacher.

  Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them—a form of favouritism will replace equality. At the moment, the bright child from an ill—respected school can show certificates to prove he or she is suitable for a job, while the lake of certificate indicates the unsuitability of a dull child attending a well—respected school. This defend of excellence and opportunity would disappear if examinations were taken away, and the bright child form a poor family would be a prisoner of his or her school’s reputation, unable to compete for employment with the child from the favoured school.

  The opponents of the examination system suggest that examinations are an evil force because they show differences between pupils. According to these people, there must be no special, different, academic class. They have even suggested that there should be no form of difference in sport or any other area: all jobs or posts should be filled by unsystematic selection. The selection would be made by people who themselves are probably selected by some computer.

  82.The word “favouritism” in paragraph 3 is used to describe the phenomenon that________.

  A.bright children also need certificates go get satisfying jobs.

  B.children from well—respected schools tend to have good jobs

  C.poor children with certificates are favoured in job markets

  D.children attending ordinary schools achieve great success

  83.What would happen if examinations were taken away according to the author?

  A.Schools for bright children would lose their reputation.

  B.There would be more opportunities and excellence.

  C.Children from poor families would be able to change their schools.

  D.Children’s job opportunity would be affected by their school reputation.

  84.The opponents of the examination system will agree that _________.

  A.jobs should not be assigned by systematic selection

  B.computers should be selected to take over many jobs

  C.special classed are necessary to keep the school standards

  D.schools with academic subjects should be done away with

  85.The passage mainly focuses on ___________.

  A.schools and certificates             B.examination and equality

  C.opportunity and employment         D.standards and reputation

  第四节 应用文的阅读方法

  应用文不同于一般普通的文章,应用文措辞简洁明了、直截了当。应用文是一种使用范围比较广泛的文体,象广告、书信、列车或飞机的时刻表、产品说明书、宣传海报、简明新闻等都属于应用文,他们的目的都是为了向读者传输信息。在阅读这类文章时主要是注意细节信息,做题时,根据所提问题用寻读、跳读的方法更有效。

  了解了应用文的措辞和内容特点,我们在实践中总结出读应用文的关键是:抓信息。例如:

  (05江西卷 C段)

  OUR KIDS ARE AMAZING-especially compared with everybody else’s (who seem to cry all the time). How do you show your love for your kids this holiday season? With toys that are smooth and colorful, interactive and exciting. And with ones that have educational value-because you are the boss.

  1.FLAX ART HOSPITAL PUZZLE AND PLAY SET

  Here is a toy that doesn’t need power-and the bike have to put it together themselves. This 50-piece puzzle set is made of soft-edged hardwood and makes a complete hospital, with an X-ray room. It also includes eight patients, a car and a driver.  $135; flaxart.com.

  2.TINY LOVE ACTIVITY BALL

  Sure, it’s cool, but this colorful baby toy also develops problem solving and motor skills. It has a head and legs, a magnetic(磁性的) hand and a tail. Suitable for little ones from 6 to 36 months.  $19.95; tinylove.com.

  3.ROBOSAPIEN

  This small, remote-control robot is really powerful. It performs 67 preprogrammed functions(功能), including throwing, kicking, picking up and dancing. You can even program your own function-which, sadly, does not include doing windows. $99;  robosapienonline.com.

  4.MINI PEDAL CAR

  Want a Mini Cooper but can’t fit the family inside? Get one for the kids. They can jump into this Mini car, which comes in hot orange with a single adjustable(可调的) seat, and ride away. But it could spoil them for that used car they’ll be driving when they turn 16.For ages 3 to 5.$189; miniusA.com  (click on “gear up,” then “Mini motoring gear”).

  解析:快速scanning,我们知道这是一篇关于儿童玩具的广告。抓信息是关键,要抓住对我们答题有用的信息。我们先看问题,看题目对什么信息提问,这样就能做到有的放矢,先看64题。

  64.Which toy is said to have the special design for children’s safety?

  A.ROBOSAPIEN

  B.MINI PEDAL CAR

  C.FLAX ART HOSPITAL PUZZLE AND PLAY SET

  D.TINY LOVE ACTIVITY BALL

  该题问哪一个玩具为孩子的安全做了特别的设计?回到原文,我们很快发现在1.FLAX ART HOSPITAL PUZZLE AND PLAY SET中有This 50-piece puzzle set is made of soft-edged hardwood and makes a complete hospital, with an X-ray room.一句描述,注意句中的soft-edged,我们可得出答案:C。

  65.Which toy are fit for three-year-old kids?

  A.1 and 3. B.2 and 4. C.I and 2. D.3 and 4.

  采用寻读的方法,很快找到答案:B。

  66.Educational value is mentioned in all the toys EXCETP _________.

  A.FLAX ART HOSPITAL PUZZLE AND PLAY SET

  B.TINY LVE ACTIVITY BALL

  C.ROBOSAPIEN

  D.MINI PEDAL CAR

  快速扫描四种玩具的特点,我们很快就能找到相关信息,得出答案:B。

  67.This passage is written for __________.

  A.parents B.children C.the writer D.the boss

  家长才会给孩子买玩具,不言而喻,答案:A。

  【实战演练练习二十六】(05山东卷 D篇)

  Use your American Express Card to enjoy one-day privileges at four of America’s greatest museums. Note the participating museums, and their exciting special exhibitions that you will not want to miss, listed below.

  Boston

  Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

  Chairs

  February 11--May 8, 2005

  Italian furniture expert Fausto Calderai and Indian photographer Dayanita Singh present an exhibition of chairs from the museum’s collection and “chair photographs” from around the world presented in a Venetian-style hall housing world-famous masterpieces.

  For more information: www.gardnermuseum.org

  New York

  The Noguchi Museum

  Noguchi and Graham

  December 1, 2004--May 1, 2005

  Noguchi’s long-term collaboration with dancer Martha Graham is regarded by many as a high point in the history of both modern dance and art. The exhibition highlights nine of the sets created through this collaboration.

  For more information: www.noguchi.org

  Philadelphia

  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

  In Full View: American Painting(1720--2005)

  January 11--April 10, 2005

  Founded in 1805, the Pennsylvania Academy has been home to America’s artists for 200 years. The Academy collects and exhibits the works of famous American artists, and is well-known for training fine artists. 2005 at the Academy begins with the largest exhibition of Academy’s distinguished American collection in the institution’s history.

  For more information: www.pafA.org

  Seattle

  Seattle Museum of Glass

  Murano: Glass from the Olnick Spanu Collection

  Through November 7, 2004

  This exhibition includes over 200 pieces of beautiful glass from Murano, the island of glassblowers near Venice, Italy. Watch live glass-blowing shows in the Hot Shop and see other modern glass exhibitions.

  For more information: www.museumofglass.org

  69.Which of the following websites offers information about the furniture show?

  A.www.pafA.org   B.www. museumofglass.org

  C.www.noguchi.org  D.www.gardnermuseum.org

  70.We learn from the text that Martha Graham is _____.

  A.a dancer B.a glassblower C.a painter D.a photographer

  71.If you want to know the history of American painting, you may visit _____.

  A.the Noguchi Museum  B.Seattle Museum of Glass

  C.Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum  D.Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

  【实战演练练习二十七】(05广东卷 E篇)

  HOLIDAYS

  The Bay Hotel.It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialised Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point.If pop music is no longer your strong point, and you are considering a relaxing holiday where the scenery is breathtaking and the sound of the sea is live music to your ears, come and stay with us.For adults only.Sssh! Don't tell everyone! 01326 280464

  Willapark Manor Hotel.Peaceful situation in 14 acres of separated gardens and woodland, overlooking picturesque bay.Close to coastal path and beach.Excellent cuisine.Our excellent service brings our guests back year after year.Children (reductions) and pets welcome.01840 770782

  The Country Garden Hotel.Delightful hotel set in lovely gardens; calm Island of Wight near Tennyson Downs, Great food! Garden, sea view and ground floor rooms.Please call for brochure (服务指南) and sample menu.Adults only and pets welcome.0800 980 1943

  Boscastle.Romantic 17th Century farmer's cottage in countryside with splendid coastal views.Well-equipped.Sleeps 5.Regret no pets/smoking.Garden with furniture.Brochure; 01633 450417

  Godshill.4 star self-served units.Non smoking.Sleeps 2 —4.Open all year.Good walks.Close to pubs.Peaceful.Cosy.No pets.Brochure: 01983 840371

  The Blakeney Hotel.Overlooking harbour, traditional privately owned friendly hotel vi

  bedrooms, lift, heated indoor pool, spa bath and saunas.Relax, walk, sail, play golf, explore the villages, countryside and coast.Special seasonal midweek price for aged citizens.01263 7407

  S W France.Rural setting near Cordes.Two beautifully repainted old houses, sleep 4/5 ,Gardens, woodland, pool, views, excellent walks.Available all year round.Outstanding.01962 776967

  72.All of the following hotels are close to the sea EXCEPT _______.

  A.S W France  B.The Blakeney Hotel

  C.Willapark Manor Hotel D.The Country Garden Hotel

  73.If you want to take your children and your dog with you on holiday, you can choose _________.

  A.The Country Garden Hotel B.Willapark Manor Hotel

  C.The Bay Hotel  D.Boscastle

  74.One of the hotels offers special price for _______.

  A.young people  B.elderly people

  C.foreign guests  D.students

  75.The purpose of the passage is to _______.

  A.warn B.advise C.describe D.advertise

  【实战演练练习二十八】(04上海卷 B篇)

  (You may read the questions first)

  Products: mail order

  Bay 3-piece luggage set for only  £69.99                      ALL ORDERS

  Half price offer                                            DELIVERED

  Pack with confidence, Travel in Style…. Arrive intact             FREE TO YOUR

  This elegant luggage is manufactured in a new hard-wearing plastic  DOOR

  which is strong and very light in weight

  ?Light but hard-wearing

  ?3 locks (2 key and I combination lock )for total security

  ?Supplied with initials for personalization

  MD 9572 £69.99

  Plan your journey they easy way

  This portable Traveler will give you directions from A to B

  anywhere in England, Scotland and Wales. Just enter the start

  and the end of your journey and the Traveler will work out

  the quickest route. The Traveler can also estimate the journey time, average speed

  and fuel consumption. Need to change your journey at any stage?

  The Traveler will give you a new set of directions. Other features include auto shut-off.

  And a built-in light for night-time use.

  Powered by 4AA batteries (not supplied).

  MD 7437 Traveler £69.99

  How much do you know?

  Everyone, young and old, enjoys and challenge of quizzers. Our electronic Quizmaster

  contains 5,400 questions and answers in 6 classifications—general knowledge, sport,

  science, geography, art and history. Each of these is further divided into 3 skill levels

  (easy, medium and difficult)so younger children can fairly compete against teenagers and

  adults. PLUS!

  Every Quizmaster includes:

  ?8 Games of Hangman

  ?Portune Teller Games

  ?10-digit calculator

  ?long life cell batteries included

  MD 9569 Quizmaster was £19.99 now £14.99

  79.In advertisement 2, the Traveler enables us to learn__________.

  A.the road conditions from London to Oxfords

  B.all the garages along the chosen route

  C.the time and speed of the journey in Britain

  D.the directions from London to Paris.

  80.In advertisement 3, the Quizmaster_________.

  A.contains nothing but 5400 questions      B.can only answer challenging questions

  C.can be purchased in many shops         D.can be used by people of all

  81.All these advertisements are aimed at those_________.

  A.who like to order goods at home     B.who are going to travel abroad

  C.who do market researches           D.who are interested in intelligence tests

  【实战演练练习二十九】(06广东卷 E篇)

  72.Who is (are) the editor (s) of William Faulkner: Novels 1926-1929?

  A.Noel Polk & Joseph Blotner.

  B.Phillip Lopate.

  C.Tony Kushner.

  D, Leo Bersani.

  73.How much do you pay for American Movie Critics?

  A.US $45.

  B.US $40.

  C.US $35.

  D.US $25.

  74.Which book do you buy if you want to read the play "Death of a Salesman" ?

  A.Arthur Miller: Collected Plays 1944 -1961.

  B.William Faulkner: Novels 1926-1929.

  C.Henry James: Novels 1901 -1902.

  D.American Movie Critics.

  75.Henry James' only book written in the first person is

  A.The Wings of the Dove.

  B.The Sacred Fount.

  C.Soldiers'Pay.

  D.Mosquitoes.

 

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