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您现在的位置:首页 > 高考总复习 > 高考知识点 > 高考英语知识点 > 新课标人教版高三英语第二轮复习专题讲座六:阅读理解的解题技巧

新课标人教版高三英语第二轮复习专题讲座六:阅读理解的解题技巧

来源:网络 2009-09-04 09:21:39

  高考阅读理解的解题技巧

  阅读理解作为考查考生语言能力的重点,《考试大纲》提出了明确的要求:“要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料。考生应能:理解主旨要义;理解文中具体信息;根据上下文推断生词的词义;作出简单判断和推理;理解文章的基本结构;理解作者的意图和态度。”高考英语阅读理解也围绕这一要求来命题,基本上可分为五类:1.细节判断题;

  2.猜测词义题;3.主旨大意题;4.推理引申题;5.篇章结构题。下面以2004、2005、2006年全国统一高考英语科试题为例来分析上述五种试题的命题特点、具体要求以及解题技巧和方法。

  第一节 细节判断题解题技巧

  《普通高中英语课程标准》中达到英语学科的高中毕业要求为七级,其有关阅读最基本的要求是:“能从一般性文章中获取和处理主要信息”。对这种“获取和处理主要信息”能力的考查,主要采用的方式就是:细节判断。这类题在高考阅读理解题中占一定的比例,做好这类题是确保基础分的关键。同时,弄清细节,正确获取信息,也是把握文章主旨的前提。因此,要特别重视做好这类题。

  细节判断题题干常见的问句形式多种多样。如:

  Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

  Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage?

  Which of the following is NOT considered as …?

  According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the reasons for … ?

  How many … … ?

  What/who/when/where/how/why … … ?

  做这类题的一般方法是通过skimming把握文章中心后,再通过寻读法(scanning)快速确定该细节在文中的出处(信息源),对照选项进行“三对一错或三错一对”的判断。若该信息句是长句或难句,要学会找出其主干部分、分析句子结构,正确理解信息句的意义。

  命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴”的手法来迷惑考生,即对原句细微处做改动,截取原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置,把A的观点说成B的观点等。所以正确理解题干和信息句的意义是关键。

  这类细节性问题所涉及的面很广,有的需要经过简单的数学运算确定时间、距离、次数、数量等;有的涉及正误判断;有的询问事实、原因、结果、目的等。例如:(注:本书例题练习中选用全国各地高考题均保留原题号)

  (05全国卷II B篇)The days of elderly women doing nothing but cooking huge meals on holidays are gone. Enter the Red Hat Society -a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.

  “My grandmothers didn’t do anything but keep house and serve everybody. They were programmed to do that,” said Emily Comette, head of a chapter of the 7-year-old Red Hat Society.

  While men have long spent their time fishing and playing golf, women have sometimes seemed to become unnoticed as they age. But the generation now turning 50 is the baby boomers(生育高峰期出生的人), and the same people who refused their parents’ way of being young are now trying a new way of growing old.

  If you take into consideration feminism(女权主义), a bit of spare money, and better health for most elderly, the Red Hat Society looks almost inevitable(必然的). In this society, women over 50 wear red hats and purple(紫色的) clothes, while the women under 50 wear pink hats and light purple clothing.

  “The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998. When the ladies started to wear the red hats, they attracted lots of attention.

  “The point of this is that we need a rest from always doing something for someone else,” Cooper said. “Women feel so ashamed and sorry when they do something for themselves.” This is why chapters are discouraged from raising money or doing anything useful. “We’re a ladies’ play group. It couldn’t be more simple,” added Cooper’s assistant Joe Heywood.

  47.Who set up the Red Hat Society ?

  A.Emily Comette. B.Ellen Cooper. C.Jenny Joseph.  D.Joe Heywood.

  48.Women join the Red Hat Society because          .

  A.they want to stay young

  B.they would like to appear more attractive

  C.they would like to have fun and live for themselves

  D.they want to be more like their parents

  解析:这两题都是细节判断题。和47题相关的信息句是文中的:“The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998. 理解了这句话,我们不难得出答案B。 通过浏览我们了解了“the Red Hat Society”这个社团的性质和作用,再结合信息句 “Enter the Red Hat Society -a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.”,我们很容易得出48题正确答案为C。

  (05 福建卷 A 篇)Paul Zindel’s death on March 27,2003 ended the brilliant life of a famous writer.

  Not only did Paul Zindel win a Pulitzer Prize as well as an Obie Prize for his 1970 play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, but he was one of the earliest writers in the field of contemporary(当代的) literature for young adults(成人). The Pigman, published in 1968, is still one of the most well-known and widely-taught novels in the genre. The American Library Association has named it one of the 100 Best of the Best Books for Young Adults published between 1967 and 1992, and Zindel’s autobiography, The Pigman and Me, was among the 100 Best of the Best Books published for teenagers during the last part of the twentieth century. Six of Zindel’s books, in fact, have been voted the Best Books for Young Adults, and most of his recent horror books-such as The Doom Stone and Rats have been chosen as Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers. Clearly, he was a writer who knew how to interest contemporary children. Recognizing that, the American Library Association in 2002 honored Paul Zindel with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize for his lifetime achievements, and later that same year he was presented with the ALAN Prize for his contributions to Young Adult Literature. With his passing, young readers, teachers, and librarians have lost a great friend.

  56.Which of Paul Zindel’s books was the most popular with young adults in the 20th century?

  A.The Pigman.

  B.The Doom Stone.

  C.The Pigman and Me.

  D.The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds.

  57.Why was Paul Zindel honored with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize?

  A.His books were widely read by children.

  B.His books were interesting and helpful to adults.

  C.He made great contributions to contemporary literature.

  D.He wrote a number of horror books for young adults.

  58.When did Paul Zindel win the ALAN Prize?

  A.In 2002.  B.In 2003.

  C.Between 1967 and 1992. D.Between 2002 and 2003.

  59.Choose the correct statements from the following according to the passage.

  a.The Pigman and Me was one of the Best Books for teenagers.

  b.Zindel was one of the earliest writers who wrote for adults only.

  c.The Doom Stone and Rats are not popular with young adults.

  d.Zindel was given four prizes for literature before he died.

  e.At least eight of Zindel’s books were very popular in his times.

  A.c, d, e B.a, b, c C.a, b, d D.a, d, e

  解析:这四题都是细节判断题。56、57、58三题, 只要我们根据题干的问句找到信息源,很快就能找到正确答案分别是:A、C、A,做第59题时我们要对五个陈述作出正误判断,b、c两个说法是错误的,因此,正确答案为D。

  下面请同学们实战演练上述方法和技巧。

  【实战演练练习一】(05北京卷 A 篇)

  Chances

  I really love my job because I enjoy working with small children and like the challenges and awards from the job. I also think my work is important. There was a time when I thought I would never have that sort of career(职业).

  I wasn’t an excellent student because I didn’t do much schoolwork. In my final term I started thinking what I might do and found I didn’t have much to offer. I just accepted that I wasn’t the type to have a career.

  I then found myself a job. Looking after two little girls, It wasn’t too bad at first. But the problems began when I agreed to live in, so that I would be there if my boss had to go out for business in the evening. We agreed that if I had to work extra hours one week, she’d give me time off the next. But unfortunately, it didn’t often work out. I was getting extremely tired and fed up, because I had too many late nights and early mornings with the children.

  One Sunday, I was in the park with the children, and met Megan who used to go to school with me, I told her about my situation. She suggested that I should do a course and get a qualification(资格证书)if I wanted to work with children. I didn’t think I would be accepted because I didn’t take many exams in school. She persuaded me to phone the local college and they were really helpful. My experience counted for a lot and I got on a part – time course. I had to leave my job with the family, and got work helping out at a kindergarten.

  Now I’ve got a full – time job there. I shall always be thankful to Megan. I wish I had known earlier that you could have a career, even if you aren’t top of the class at school.

  56.What is the author’s present job?

  A.Working part – time in a college.

  B.Taking care of children for a family.

  C.Helping children with their schoolwork.

  D.Looking after children at a kindergarten.

  57.When staying with the two girls’ family, the author       .

  A.was paid for extra work B.often worked long hours

  C.got much help from her boss D.took a day off every other week

  58.Why did the author leave her first job?

  A.She found a full – time job.

  B.She was fed up with children.

  C.She decided to attend a part – time course.

  D.She needed a rest after working extra hours.

  【实战演练练习二】(05湖南卷 A 篇)

  We were on tour a few summers ago, driving through Chicago, when right outside of the city, we got pulled over. A middle-aged policeman came up to the car and was really being troublesome at first. Lecturing us, he said,“You were speeding. Where are you going in such a hurry?” Our guitarist, Tim, told him that we were on our way to Wisconsin to play a show. His way towards us totally changed. He asked, “Oh, so you boys are in a band(乐队)?”We told him that we were. He then asked all the usual band questions about the type of music we played, and how long we had been at it. Suddenly, he stopped and said, “Tim, you want to get out of this ticket, don’t you?” Tim said,“Yes.” So the officer asked him to step out of the car. The rest of us, inside the car, didn’t know what to think as we watched the policeman talk to Tim. Next thing we knew, the policeman was putting Tim in the back of the police car he had parked in front of us. With that, he threw the car into reverse(倒车),stopping a few feet in back of our car. Now we suddenly felt frightened. We didn’t know if we were all going to prison, or if the policeman was going to sell Tim on the black market or something. All of a sudden, the policeman’s voice came over his loudspeaker. He said, “Ladies and gentlemen, for the first time ever, we have Tim here singing on Route 90.”Turns out, the policeman had told Tim that the only way he was getting out of the ticket was if he sang part of one of our songs over the loudspeaker in the police car. Seconds later, Tim started screaming into the receiver. The policeman enjoyed the performance, and sent us on our way without a ticket.

  56.The policeman stopped the boys to       .

  A.put them into prison B.give them a ticket

  C.enjoy their performance D.ask some band questions

  57.The policeman became friendly to the boys when he knew they        .

  A.had long been at the band B.played the music he loved

  C.were driving for a show D.promised him a performance

  【实战演练练习三】(06江西卷 B 篇)

  Buster Biown was a thief——and a good one, too, he thought. He’d never been caught by the police because he never took chances.  He was always prepared for any unforeseenf event or emergency.

  Confidently, he stood outside the house of his intended victim(受害者) and read the sign on the front gate     of the house. “Don’t worry the dog—be aware of the owner!”  it said. Buster smiled and found his way in.

  The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display. As he began putting them into his bag, a dog came into the room. It stopped when it saw Buster, then wagged its tail madly and went over to him, licking his outstretched hand. “Good boy,” Buster whispered. “What a great guard dog you are—trying to lick me to death.”

  Satisfied he’d made friends with the dog, Buster began to wander round the house, choosing items to put in his bag. His skilled eye picked out only the best antiques (古董): a pair of silver candle holders, a silver tea-and-coffce service, etc . His new friend, the dog , sat and watched,  as if wondering what was happening.

  “Well, boy,” Buster whispered finally. “That might do. Any more and I won’t be able to carry it ! ”  Her swung the heavy bag onto his shouiders, just as the lights came on, nearly blinding him . He shielded his eyes with his hand.

  “You’ re a very silly person,” the figure in the doorway said, his voice dry as dust. As the man came closer, Bustor could see he was well dressed. His face seemed familiar, but Buster couldn’t quite sure where he had seen him before.

  “You should have taken more notice of the sign outside.” The man rasped,  “I knew about this attempted robbery Iast week and I also know you will end up behind bars for 20 years. Fancy trying to rob the house of  the world’ s greatest fortune-teller!”

  60. Why was Buster so confident?

  A. He was not afraid of dogs.

  B. He knew the owner of the house lived alone.

  C. He had never been caught by the police.

  D. The house had no security alarm.

  61. Which of the definitions id closest in meaning to the word “exoticc” in the 3rd paragraph?

  A. Messy and untidy.             B. Rich and expenaive.

  C. Comfortable and calming       D. Foreign and unusual

  62. How did Buster decide wlich objects to take?

  A. He took those the were easy to carry in his bag.

  B. He took only the best antiques.

  C. He took those that he knew he could sell easily.

  D. He looked for silver objects.

  63. What punishment waits for Buster Brown?

  A. A prison sentence with hard labour.

  B. A long prison sentence.

  C. A heavy fine

  D.Community service for 20 years.

  第二节 猜测词义题解题技巧

  在阅读中我们经常会遇到许多生词。这时许多同学立即翻阅词典,查找词义。这样做不但费时费力,而且影响阅读速度、影响对语篇的整体把握。事实上,阅读材料中的每个词与它前后的词语或句子甚至段落都有联系。我们可以利用语境(各种已知信息)推测、判断某些生词的词义。近年来全国统一高考中加大了对考生猜词义能力的考查,因此,掌握一定的猜词技巧,对突破高考阅读理解、提高我们的英语语言能力都有非常重要的意义。

  这种题常见的提问方式有:

  The word “…” in paragraph … can best be replaced by … ….

  The underlined word “…” most probably means ….

  By saying “…”, the author means …

  The expression “…” is closest to …

  According to the passage, the phrase “…” suggests …

  The underlined part “… …” (in Para. … )  means …..

  做这种类型的题,要根据词、词组、句子所在的语境来判断其意义。因此熟练掌握一些猜词技巧是做好这类题的关键。命题者在出这类题时惯用常规词义来麻痹考生,我们要特别注意熟词生义,切不可脱离语境想当然。

  猜测词义时,一般可利用以下三个方面的线索:

  一. 针对性的解释

  针对性解释是作者为了更好的表达思想,在文章中对一些重要的概念、难懂的术语或高深的词汇等所做的通俗化的解释。这些解释提供的信息明确具体,所使用的语言通俗易懂,利用它们来猜测词义就非常简单。

  1. 根据定义(definition)猜测词义

  如果生词有一个句子或段落来定义,那么理解这个句子或段落本身就是推断词义。

  定义常用的谓语动词多为:be, mean, deal with, be considered, to be, be called, define, represent, refer to, signify 等。

  例如:(05 湖北卷A段)Do you know what a “territory” is ? A territory is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims(声称)as its own.

  由定义可推知,这里territory指的是:“动物的地盘”。

  (04 浙江卷B段)Green building means “reducing the impact (影响) of the building on the land”.

  由定义我们可以推断这里 Green building 指的是什么。

  2.根据复述推测词义

  虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细,但是它提供的信息可以为阅读者猜测词义提供

  依据,至少读者可以根据复述猜测生词的大致“义域”(意义范围)。复述部分可以是词、短语、或从句。

  同位语复述:在复述中构成同位关系的两部分之间常用逗号连接,有时也使用破折号,冒号,分号,引号和括号等。同位语前常有 or, similarly, that is to say, in other words, namely, or other, say,  i.e. 等。

  例如:(05浙江卷B段)In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today.

  由同位语an endangered wild cat我们很快猜出生词ocelots的义域:一种濒临灭绝野猫。

  定语从句复述:

  例如:(04 福建卷E段)Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces .

  According the passage, The Pines is a         .

  A.place in which you can see many mobile homes

  B.mountain where you can get a good view of the valley

  C.town which happens to be near the Banff National Park

  D.restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food

  通过whose引导的定语从句,我们可以推测到:The Pines 是一家餐馆的名字,由此不难推出理解题的答案为:D。

  2. 根据举例猜测词义

  恰当的举例能够提供猜测生词的重要线索。

  例如:(04 辽宁卷C段)The course gives you chances to know great power polities between nation states. It will provide more space to study particular issues such as relationship among countries in the European Union, third world debt, local and international disagreement, and the work of such international bodies as the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and the World Bank.

  根据such as 后面列举的一系列例子,我们应该能推断出句中的issue 是指“议题”。

  二. 内在逻辑关系

  根据内在逻辑关系推测词义是指应用语言知识分析和判断相关信息之间存在的逻辑关系,然后根据逻辑联系推断生词词义或大致义域。

  1. 根据对比关系猜测词义

  在一个句子或段落中,有对两个事物或现象进行对比性的描述,我们可以根据生词的反义词猜测其词义。表示对比关系的词汇和短语主要有:unlike, not, but, however, despite, in spite of, in contrast 等。 表示对比关系的句子结构:while 引导的并列句。

  例如:(NMET 2002 E篇)A child’s birthday party doesn’t  have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun.

  What does the underlined word “hassle” (paragraph 1) probably mean?

  A. a party designed by specialists

  B. a plan requiring careful thought

  C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble

  D. a demand made by guests

  根据对比关系,这里hassle 和 a basket of fun 是相反的意义,很容易判断理解题的答案为C。

  2. 根据比较关系猜测词义

  同对比关系相反,比较关系表示意义上的相似关系。表示比较关系的词和短语主要有:similarly, like, just as, also, as well as 等。

  例如:Green loves to talk, and his brothers are similarly loquacious.

  该句中副词similarly表明短语loves to talk和loquacious 之间的比较关系,其意义相近。由此我们可推断出loquacious的意思是“健谈的”。

  3. 根据因果关系猜测词义

  在句子或段落中,若两个事物现象之间构成因果关系,我们可以根据这种逻辑关系推测生词词义。

  例如:(05上海卷B段)I feel that since you are my superior , it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do .”

  The word “presumptuous” in the middle of the passage is closest in meaning to “      ”.

  A.full of respect   B.too confident and rude

  C.lacking in experience  D.too shy and quiet

  根据since 引导的原因状语从句的内容(“既然你是我的上司”),我们可以推断这里presumptuous的意思是:“冒失的,放肆的”意思,后半句的意思是:我告诉你怎么做会是一种放肆/冒失的行为。对应的理解题答案为:B。

  (05江西卷D段)Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves.

  根据原因状语从句的内容,我们可以判断Pruning的意思是:“修剪(树枝等)”的意思。

  4. 根据同义、近义、并列、替代、说明等关系猜测词义

  在句子或段落中,我们可以利用熟悉的词语,根据语言环境所表示的关系推断生词词义。

  例如:(05 江苏卷E段)William Shakespeare said. “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn(纱线),good and ill together.”

  The underlined word “mingled” in the last paragraph most probably means     .

  A.simple B.mixed C.sad D.happy

  句中good and ill together 更具体地说明了 a mingled yarn的意义,据此我们不难推测mingled的意思是:“混合的,交织的”,答案是:B。

  (04 湖北卷C段)Is it possible to beat high blood pressure without drugs ? The answer is “yes”, according to the researchers at Johns Hopkins and three other medical centers.

  根据and three other medical centers 这种并列关系,我们很容易推断出:Johns Hopkins 是一家医疗中心。

  三. 通过构词法

  在猜测词义过程中,我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知识,从生词本身猜测词义。

  1. 根据前缀猜测词义

  例如:(05江西卷E段)Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools?

  根据词根educational (教育的),结合前缀co-(共同,一起),我们便可以猜出co-educational的意思是:“男女同校教育的”意思。

  2. 根据后缀猜测词义

  例如:(05 广东卷E段)It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point.

  后缀 -ise/ize意思是“使成为…;使…化”,结合词根commercial(商业的),不难猜出 uncommercialized 的意思是:“未被商业化的”。

  3. 根据复合词的各部分猜测词义

  例如:(05 北京卷B段)Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward(别扭的)hand positions.

  Well-designed 或许是个生词,但我们分析该词的结构后,就能推测出其含义。它由well (好,优秀)和design (设计)两部分组成,合在一起便是“设计精巧的”意思。

  (04浙江卷D 段)We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists.

  根据合成词中的mass (大量的)和produce (生产),我们可以推测 mass-produce的意思是:“大批量生产;规模生产”的意思。

  综上所述,利用各种已知的信息推测判断生词词义是一项重要的阅读技能。在阅读中我们可以根据实际灵活应用上面提到的几种猜词技巧,排除生词的干扰,理解文章的思想,提高阅读速度,同时,提高我们在高考阅读理解中的得分率。

  【实战演练练习四】(04广东卷 B 篇)

  One-third of the people in the village are children, and only 60 are over the age of 65. Just under half of the married women in the village have access to modem equipments.

  62. The underlined part “have access to” (in Para. 4) means_____.

  A. use      B. buy     C. produce      D. try

  【实战演练练习五】(04湖北卷 D篇)

  Who is there among us who hasn’t dreamed of having his or her own small (maybe , several years later , even big ) business , and having wonderful freedom , both from a boss and from the time clock ; the freedom to make up our own rules for our work , and our own plans —arranging our own hours of work ? That way work would be both painless and fun . Or , so we imagine .

  Well, in fact it isn’t quite as simple as that . Yes , it is true that being the boss has its satisfactions and that you can arrange your working hours freely if you own your own small business . But in those early years of starting your own business, you shouldn’t think of a free day , not to mention flying off for a month’s vacation . It is not unusual for new business owners to work seventy or eighty hours a week , and if there is a day off , that day might need to be devoted to accounting (算账).

  But this negative picture doesn’t destroy the beautiful hopes. The possibility of getting something wonderful in return—both material and mental—continues to drive that large number of people who start up small businesses each year in the United States .

  70.The expression “negative picture” most probably means “         ”.

  A.a terrible experience  B.a poor picture

  C.limited freedom   D.unpleasant situations

  第三节 主旨大意题解题技巧

  主旨大意题在高考阅读理解中出现的频率很高,因为这类题主要考查考生能否通过理解、分析全文,区分主要信息和次要信息,进而总结归纳文章或段落的大意。测试点主要体现在对文章的主题、目的、中心思想的把握以及标题的选择。

  这类题型常见的提问方式有:

  What’s the main idea of the passage?

  What does the passage mainly discuss?

  The topic of Paragraph … is ….

  Which of the following best states the theme of the passage?

  A good/suitable title for this passage would be ….

  我们知道:文章的主旨是通过段落来表达的,而段落的大意主要由主题句来体现,所以段落的主题句是构成文章中心思想的有机组成部分。因此,识别各段落的主题句并由此归纳出文章的中心思想是解答该类题的关键。由于文章内容和体裁的不同,作者的写作手法也不尽相同,主题句在段落中出现的位置也不固定。一般说来,采用归纳法的段落,细节表述在前,归纳概括在后,主题句在段尾;采用演绎法的段落,先提出观点,后演绎例证,由一般到特殊,主题句出现在段首;若作者采用由“特殊 — 一般 — 特殊”的方式,主题句可能出现在段落的中间。有时,作者没有写出明显的主题句,我们要学会根据段落的内容去概括出主题句,进而归纳出文章的主题。

  做这类题时常用略读法。快速阅读文章找出各个段落的主题句。把各个段落的主题句联系起来着眼于全文结构安排,了解文章的重心,就能概括出文章的中心。文章的标题是中心思想最精炼的表达形式,选择的标题意义范围要能涵盖全文,不能太大也不能太小。命题者在出这类题时,常常利用生活常识编造干扰项,把文中的细节当主旨,利用局部信息编造干扰项,编制超出文章范围的标题或不能涵盖文章中心意义的标题来考查考生的理解程度,考生要特别留意。对选择标题类题,若遇到拿不太准的情况时,可以自己思考一下:“如果是我写这个题目,我会怎样写?”。

  看看下面两个例题:

  (05 广东卷 B 篇)

  Being considered a leader in our society is indeed of high praise.Leadership means power,

  commands respect and, most important, encourages achievement.Unlike vitamin C, leadership

  skills can't be easily swallowed down.They must be carefully cultivated.

  Different from popular belief, most good leaders are made, not born.They learn their skills in their everyday lives.But which do they develop? How do they (and how can you) get others to follow?

  Always give credit.Many leaders note that the most efficient way to get a good performance

  from others is to treat them like heroes.Giving public credit to someone who has earned it is the best leadership technique in the world.It is also an act of generosity (慷慨) that's never forgotten.

  Giving credit is more effective than even the most constructive criticism (批评) , which often

  hurts rather than helps.Kenneth Blanchard, the author of The One-Minute Manager, agrees.

  "Catch people doing something right!" he says.Then tell everyone about it.

  Take informed risks." The best leaders know that taking a risk is not a thoughtless exercise,"

  says management adviser Marilyn Machlowitz, "Sky divers don't go up in an airplane without checking the parachutes (降落伞) beforehand."

  Because the idea of risk also carries with it the possibility of failure, many of us usually wait

  for others to take charge.But if you want to be a leader, you must learn to fail - and not die a

  thousand deaths.Pick yourself up and start all over again.

  Encourage enthusiasm (热情)."When people understand the importance of work, they lend

  their mental strengths," says Lee Ducat.But when they get excited about the work, all their energy gets poured into the job.That's a great force! Is this the best way to create excitement? Be enthusiastic yourself. You will be followed by everyone.

  63.Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

  A.Leadership Is of Skills and Techniques

  B.Leadership Is Very Important

  C.Not Many Can Be Leaders

  D.How to Be a Leader

  解析:这一题考查主旨大意,要考生为文章选择标题。文章第一第二两段提出:‘Leadership skills must be carefully cultivated.’‘Most good leaders are made, not born.’(领导能力要精心培养。)接下来文章从三个方面阐述了培养领导能力的方法:Always give credit/ Take informed risks/ Encourage enthusiasm (热情)。根据各个段落的主题句,结合文章的结构,我们不难归纳出文章的中心:这篇文章讲的是怎样培养领导才能。由此,我们判断选项D 在意义上涵盖了文章的中心,是最好的标题。

  (05 天津卷 A 篇)

  Everyone’s at it , even my neighbors . I thought I might be the only person left in the world who hadn’t done an eBay deal . So, I decided to try my hand at online auction (网上拍卖) . Buying for beginners: Sign up on www.ebay.co.uk . Most items (e. g. tables, computers, and books) ready for auction will come with a picture and a shart description ; others may be marked with “Buy It Now” and have a fixed price . You can buy these right away.

  If the item is being auctioned , you offer the highest price you are prepared to pay and eBay bids (出价) for you . The bid will be increased little by little until it goes beyond your highest bid, then you are emailed and asked if you would like to bid again. Auctions last up to 10 days and when they finish you get an email telling you whether you have won the item.

  How to pay : Sellers decide how they would like to be paid and you need to check this before placing a bid as you might not want to post a cheque or postal orders . The easiest way is through PayPal, an online payment system that takes the money away from your credit card (信用卡).

  Selling made simple: If you plan to sell on eBay, it helps to include a picture of the item . I followed my friends’ advice and put up the items I wanted to sell for a 10-day auction, starting on a Thursday. This way buyers had two weekends to bid.

  The big things in life: It’s easy to post a small item , but furniture is a big part of eBay and this has to be collected or sent by deliverymen . Check the ways of delivery before you bid.

  36.What is the passage mainly about?

  A.How to make payment online.

  B.Ways of making delivery online.

  C.Advantages of an online-auction system.

  D.How to use an online-auction system.

  解析:这是一篇说明文,文章结构清晰明了,第一段介绍注册网址、网上的拍卖品;第二段介绍怎样竞价;第三段介绍怎样付款。把三段的大意联系起来我们就可以概括出文章的中心:网络拍卖系统的使用方法。由此,我们很容易得出答案:D。

  【实战演练练习六】(05 福建卷 C 篇)

  Walk through the Amazon rainforest today and you will find it is steamy, warm, damp and thick. But if you had been around 15,000 years ago, during the last ice age ,would it have been the same? For more than 30 years, scientists have been arguing about how rainforests like the Amazon might have reacted(反应)to the cold, dry climates of the ice ages, but until now, no one has reached a satisfying answer.

  Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tones of CO2 each year; equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year. But how will the Amazon react to future climate change? If it gets drier, will it still survive and continue to draw down CO2? Scientists hope that they will be able to learn in advance how the rainforest will manage in the future by understanding how rainforests reacted to climate change in the past.

  Unfortunately, getting into the Amazon rainforest and collecting information are very difficult. To study past climate, scientists need to look at fossilized pollen, kept in lake muds. Going back to the last ice age means drilling deep down into lake sediments(沉淀物), which requires specialized equipment and heavy machinery. There are very few roads and paths, or places to land helicopters and aeroplanes. Rivers tend to be the easiest way to enter the forest ,but this still leaves vast areas between the rivers completely unsampled(未取样). So far, only a handful of cores have been drilled that go back to the last ice age and none of them provide enough information to prove how the Amazon rainforest reacts to climate change.

  67.The best title for this passage may probably be        .

  A.Studies of the Amazon B.Climates of the Amazon

  C.Secrets of the Rainforests          D.Changes of the Rainforests

  【实战演练练习七】(05 上海卷 D 篇)

  Equipped only with a pair of binoculars(双筒望远镜) and ready to spend long hours waiting in all weathers for a precious glance of a rare bullfinch(红腹灰雀). Britain’s birdwatchers had long been supposed to be lovers of a minority sport. But new figures show birdwatching is fast becoming a popular pastime, with almost three million of us absorbed in our fluttering feathered friends.

  Devoted birdwatchers, those prepared to travel thousands of miles for a sighting of a rare Siberian bird are fast being joined by a new breed of follower whose interest is satiated by watching a few finches(雀科鸣鸟) on a Sunday walk or putting up a bird-box in the back garden.

  “Almost three million UK birdwatchers is certainly possible if you include everyone with only a casual interest.” Stephen Moss said in his newly published book-A Bird in the Bush a Social History of Birdwatching-which records the pursuit from the rich Victorian Englishman’s love of shooting rare birds to the less offensive observational tendencies of birdwatchers today.

  Television wildlife programmes have helped to fuel the new trend. Last summer, BBC 2’s Britain Goes Wild was a surprise success .It pulled in three million viewers and led to bird-houses selling out across the UK as 45,000 people promised to put up a box.

  Birdwatchers’ networking system first came to the attention of the nation in 1989, when a birdwatcher caught sight of the first Vermivora chrysoptera --- a golden–winged songbird from North America-to be seen in Britain. He put a message our on the network service Birdline, and the next day 3,000 birdwatchers proved the fell pull of a truly rare bird as they visited the Tesco car park in Kent, where it had settled. Today, birdwatchers can log on to www.birdline.co.uk or have news of the latest sightings texted to their phones.

  “Multimillion-pound spending on, binoculars, bird food and boxes point to the increasing numbers of birdwatchers,” said David Cromack, the editor of Bird Watching magazine “The number of people involved is so big that they have great potential to influence government decisions affecting the environment.”

  79.The passage mainly tells us about ___________ in UK.

  A.the history of birdwatchig B.a growing passion for birdwatching

  C.the impact of media on birdwatching D.birdwatcing as a popular expensive sport

  第四节 推理引申题解题技巧

  阅读的目的不仅在于读懂原文字面上的意义,还要求在理解原文观点的基础上,领悟作者的言外之意(learn to read between the lines)。《考试大纲》要求考生能作出简单判断和推理、能理解作者的意图和态度。这一能力要求常常通过推理引申题来考查。

  推理是要求考生在阅读过程中沟通外现的和内涵的、已述的和未述的含义,以文章提供的事实为依据,经过分析、思考形成这样或那样的观点;要求考生在通篇理解文章的基础上去领悟作者的言外之意,并对作者的态度、观点、写作目的意图、文章的寓意等作出正确的推理判断。引申要求考生在理解文章主题思想、作者的态度倾向、观点意图、情节发展等的前提下,作出合乎逻辑的引申。这类题要求我们由“已知的”去推断“未知的”,属于一种深层次的理解。

  推理引申题题干中常常含有infer,imply, suggest,conclude, learn,tone, attitude, intend, purpose 等一类的词。常见的提问形式有:

  The purpose of the passage is to … …

  It can be inferred from the passage that …

  We may infer that…..

  When the writer talks about …., what the writer really means is …

  The author suggests that….

  The story implies that….

  The writer’s attitude towards ….is ….

  From the passage we can conclude that….

  The passage is intended to ….

  In the author’s opinion, …….

  The purpose of writing this passage is … …

  It can be concluded that… ….

  Which point of view may the author agree to ?

  了解了这一类题的特点和命题形式,我们还要注意正确的答题方法:在阅读时要抓住文章的主题和细节,分析文章的结构,根据上下文之间的内在联系,推断文章的深层含义。对于隐含在字里行间或者流露于文章修饰词语中的人物的行为动机、事件中的因果关系及作者未言明的倾向、态度、观点、意图等要依据文章的主题思想进行合乎逻辑的推理判断。命题者在出推理类题时往往编造一些文中已言明的事实、超出文章范围的推理、过度发挥的引申等来作为干扰项考查考生的逻辑思维能力。因此,特别注意:文中已明确说明的内容不需要推理,推理以原文中心为依据,引申要适度。对于涉及作者观点和态度一类题时,不要把自己的态度掺入其中,还要注意区分作者的观点态度和作者引用别人的观点态度,当作者没有明确表示态度时,要学会根据作者使用词语的褒贬性去判断。常用的褒义词有:positive,  support, useful, interesting, enthusiasm, admiring, great, wonderful, beautiful, fantastic;常用的贬义词有: disgusting, critical, negative, tolerant, disappointed, awful; 常用的表中性的词有:indifferent, impassive, uninterested, ambivalent(矛盾的), neutral, apathetic(无动于衷的), humor, disinterested.

  看看下面的例题:(05 重庆卷 A 篇)

  My parents were in a huge argument, and I was really upset about it . I didn’t know who I should talk with about how I was feeling. So I asked Mom to allow me to stay the night at my best friend’s house. Though I knew I wouldn’t tell her about my parents’ situation, I was looking forward to getting out of the house. I was in the middle of packing up my things when suddenly the power went out in the neighborhood. Mom came to tell me that I should stay with my grandpa until the power came back on.

  I was really disappointed because I felt that we did not have much to talk about. But I knew he would be frightened alone in the dark. I went to his room and told him that I’d stay with him until the power was restored. He was quite happy and said: “Great opportunity.”

  “What is?” I asked.

  “To talk , you and I ,” he said .” To hold a private little meeting about what we’re going to do with your mom and dad , and what we’re going to do with ourselves now that we’re in the situation we are in .”

  “But we can’t do anything about it , Grandpa,” I said , surprised that here was someone with whom I could share my feelings and someone who was in the same “boat” as I was .

  And that’s how the most unbelievable friendship between my grandfather and me started. Sitting there in the dark, we talked about our feelings and fears of life—from how fast things change, to how they sometimes don’t change fast enough. That night, because the power went out , I found a new friend, with whom I could safely talk about all my fears and pains, whatever they may be.

  Suddenly, the lights all came back on. “Well,” he said, “I guess that means you’ll go now .I really like our talk. I hope the power will go out every few nights!”

  58.What can be inferred from the passage?

  A.The grandchild was eager to leave.  B.They would have more chats.

  C.The lights would go out again. D.It would no longer be dark.

  解析:短文的中心是:在一个停电的夜晚,“我”和爷爷愉快畅谈的故事。故事中已言明:He was quite happy and said : “Great opportunity.”; I found a new friend, with whom I could safely talk about all my fears and pains, whatever they may be;I hope the power will go out every few nights!这些事实,结合短文的中心,我们不难推断出:爷孙两个人以后会有更多的交流。所以,这题答案为:B。

  (05 重庆卷 E 篇)

  In modern society there is a great deal of argument about competition. Some value it highly, believing that it is responsible for social progress and prosperity. Others say that competition is bad; that it sets one person against another; that it leads to unfriendly relationship between people .

  I have taught many children who held the belief that their self-worth relied (依赖)on how well they performed at tennis and other skills. For them, playing well and winning are often life-and-death affairs. In their single-minded pursuit ( 追求)of success, the development of many other human qualities is sadly forgotten .

  However, while some seem to be lost in the desire to succeed, others take an opposite attitude. In a culture which values only the winner and pays no attention to the ordinary players, they strongly blame competition. Among the most vocal are youngsters who have suffered under competitive pressures from their parents or society. Teaching these young people, I often observe in them a desire to fail. They seem to seek failure by not trying to win or achieve success. By not trying, they always have an excuse: “I may have lost, but it doesn’t matter because I really didn’t try.” What is not usually admitted by themselves is the belief that if they had really tried and lost, that would mean a lot. Such a loss would be a measure of their worth. Clearly, this belief is the same as that of the true competitors who try to prove themselves. Both are based on the mistaken belief that one’s self-respect relies on how well one performs in comparison with others. Both are afraid of not being valued. Only as this basic and often troublesome fear begins to dissolve (缓解) can we discover a new meaning in competition .

  75.Which point of view may the author agree to?

  A.Every effort should be paid back.

  B.Competition should be encouraged.

  C.Winning should be a life-and-death matter.

  D.Fear of failure should be removed in competition.

  解析:文章结构清晰,第一段首句揭示主题:Opinions about competition are different among people. 第二段作者通过生活中的观察发现:Many children are lost in the desire to succeed. 并表明自己的看法:In their single-minded pursuit ( 追求)of success , the development of many other human qualities is sadly forgotten .(在他们对成功追求的简单心态下,许多其他的品德的发展被可悲地遗忘了。)第三段第一句用到表转折的副词however,其后呈现段落主题句:while some seem to be lost in the desire to succeed , others take an opposite attitude .接下来,作者分析了两种不同态度的实质:Both are based on the mistaken belief that one’s self-respect relies on how well one performs in comparison with others . Both are afraid of not being valued .最后作者表明自己的观点:Only as this basic and often troublesome fear begins to dissolve (缓解) can we discover a new meaning in competition .分析各个段落的主题,我们不难得出文章的中心思想:只有消除竞争中的畏惧心理,我们才能发现竞争的意义。75题是一道推理题,要求我们推断作者的观点态度,分析文章的结构,结合文章的主题,我们不难推断出:D 为正确答案。

  【实战演练练习八】(05 山东卷 B 篇)

  Fidenzio Salvatori is determined that the city of Toronto will have an outdoor marketplace for merchants from its immigrant community, complete with dancing and other forms of amusement from their native countries. “Toronto is truly multicultural(多元文化的),” he said in a newspaper interview. “It’s a city from many places, and a multicultural marketplace will help Torontonians to understand and appreciate the rich variety of cultural groups in our city.”

  Salvatori, aged 23, will soon complete his studies at the University of Toronto. He was eleven years old when he came to Canada from Italy with his parents. “Most of Toronto’s immigrants are from lands where the marketplace has always been part of daily life,” he said.

  Salvatori has been interested in getting an open-air market for Toronto for the last three years. This year, with the help of two fellow students, he prepared a proposal on the subject and presented it to the city’s Executive Committee, asking for their support. The proposal pointed out Toronto’s rich variety of national groups, “whose customs include market shopping.”

  Under a Canadian government program for multiculturalism, the three students have received tow thousand dollars with which they will do a study to find out whether Toronto’s immigrant businessmen would support an open-air market. They hope the merchants will support the plan strongly. “A study done earlier this year showed that 90 percent of shoppers would be in favor of it,” Salvatori said. “At first it would be an experiment. But we think it will prove to be good business for the merchants, as well as a tourist attraction.”

  64.It can be inferred from the text that the Canadian government supports _____.

  A.the protection of different cultures B.the plan of an open-air market

  C.the request of merchants  D.the attitude of shoppers

  【实战演练练习九】(05 辽宁卷 A 篇)

  When building houses, people used to think about not only the climate of the areas but also the building materials and the fashions for their houses. However, since electricity became more and more expensive, people began to pay much more attention to the energy they could get for their houses and the new ways they could find to protect their houses from both cold and heat.

  Now, houses of an old yet new type have been widely built. In some parts of the world, people share their houses with their livestock(家畜).During cold weather, they gather their cows, goats, or other animals and keep them on the first floor of their houses. The reasons are that the animals can be protected from the cold and that they can help to heat the houses as well. The body heat given off by the animals rises to the second floor of the houses, where people live. By sharing their houses with their livestock, people gain a source of heat.

  People who live in or near cities do not usually keep livestock. However, home builders use the fact that heat rises. This natural law can be used in building houses in these areas. Instead of keeping livestock on the first floor, builders fill it with large rocks. As they are open to the sun’s rays during cold weather, these rocks take in heat. They also give off the heat, and, of course, the warm air rises into the living areas of the houses. So these houses are energy-saving.

  House-building becomes a great challenge(挑战)to building designers and energy engineers. They try to meet this challenge by learning from old traditions and by using modern technology. And someday in the future, people will be able to live in more energy-saving houses.

  59.From the passage, we can conclude that __________.

  A.people will no longer consider building materials in the future

  B.energy-saving buildings will become more popular in the future

  C.almost all people will move into the houses heated by large rocks

  D.energy engineers will devote themselves only to modern technology

  【实战演练练习十】(05 全国卷Ⅲ  E 篇)

  Last year my sixth-grader daughter, Elizabeth, was forced to put up with science. Her education, week after week ,contained mindless memorization of big words like “batholith” and “saprophyte”. She learned by heart the achievements of famous scientists who did things like “improved nuclear fusion(核聚变)” —never mind that she hasn’t the least idea of what nuclear fusion means .Elizabeth did very well (she’s good at memorizing things). And now she hates science. My eighth-grader son, Ben, also suffered from science education. Week after week he had to perform lab experiments with answers already known .Ben figured out how to guess the right answers, so he got good grades. Now he hates science, too.

  Science can provide an exciting way to develop children’s curiosity .Science education should teach ways to ask questions and seek answers. But my children got the mistaken idea in school that science is difficult, dull and has no relation to their everyday interests.

  As a physicist, I am saddened and angered to see “the great science turn off” I know that science is important in our lives. Yet studies prove that our schools are turning out millions of graduates who know almost nothing about and have almost no interest in science. What’s gone wrong? Who is to blame?

  60.By writing the text, the author questions          .

  A.the difficulty level of the science texts B.the way science is taught in school

  C.the achievements of famous scientists D.students’ poor records in science classes

  【实战演练练习十一】(06 北京卷B篇)

  I was 9 years old when I found out my father was ill. It was 1994, but I can remember my mother’s words as if it were yesterday: “Kerrel, I don’t want you to take food from your father, because he has AIDS. Be very careful when you are around him.”

  AIDS wasn’t something we talked about in my country when I was growing up. From then on, I knew that this would be a family secret. My parents were not together anymore, and my dad lived alone. For a while, he could take care of himself. But when I was 12, his condition worsened. My father’s other children lived far away, so it fell to me to look after him.

  We couldn’t afford all the necessary medication for him, and because Dad was unable to work, I had no money for school supplies and often couldn’t even buy food for dinner. I would sit in class feeling completely lost, the teacher’s words muffled as I tried to figure out how I was going to manage.

  I did not share my burden (负担) with anyone. I had seen how people reacted to AIDS. Kids laughed at classmates who had parents with the disease. And even adults could be cruel. When my father was moved to the hospital, the nurses would leave his food on the bedside table even though he was too weak to feed himself.

  I had known that he was going to die, but after so many years of keeping his condition a secret. I was completely unprepared when he reached his final days. Sad and hopeless, I called a woman at the nonprofit National AIDS Support. That day, she kept me on the phone for hours. I was so lucky to find someone who cared. She saved my life.

  I was 15 when my father died. He took his secret away with him, having never spoken about AIDS to anyone, even me. He didn’t want to call attention to AIDS. I do.

  63. Why did Kerrel write the passage?

  A. To tell people about the sufferings of her father.

  B. To show how little people knew about AIDS.

  C. To draw people’s attention to AIDS.

  D. To remembered her father.

  【实战演练练习十二】(06 陕西卷D篇)

  In many countries the standard of living enjoyed by their peole has increased rapidly in recent years.  Sadly,not everyone in these coyntries is so fortunate and many people in rich contries are homeless.

  The reasons for homelessness are various, but poverty(贫穷)is undoubtedly one of the main causes.  The homeless people may have become jobless and then been unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads.  Often, the fact that unemployed people get help from the government prevents this from happening, but not always.

  Some homeless people are mentally ill and have no one to look after them.  Some are young people who, for one reason or another , have left home and have nowhere to live.  Many of them have had a serious disagreement with their parents and have left home, choosing to go to a city and live on the streets.  Sometimes they have taken such action because they have been unable to get on with a step-parent.

  Many homeless people get into the habit of begging to get enough money to stay alive, but many of the general public tefuse to give anything to beggars.  Often they are moved on by the police, being accused (指控),whether rightly or wrongly, of forceful begging .  There are many who disrespect homeles people.

  Some cynics(愤世嫉俗的人)declare that homeless people choose to live the life which they lead.  But who would willingly choose to live in z shop doorway, under a bridger or in a cardboard box?

  53. It can be inferred from the text that________.

  A. the homeles are willing to live under a bridge or in a cardboard box

  B. you will not find homeless people in countries with a high standard of living

  C. the mentally ill live on the stress becausethey want the company of other homeless people

  D. the unemployed who receive help may still be among the homeless

  第五节 篇章结构题解题技巧

  对《考试大纲》中提出的理解文章的基本结构的要求,往往通过篇章结构题来考查。考生要学会把握文章的脉络,理解段落层次之间的关系,弄清作者的写作方法。英语的文章讲究使用主题段和主题句。主题段通常在文章的开头,简要概括文章的中心思想,主题句根据段落的写作手法的不同可能在段落的开头,也可能出现在段落的中间或末尾。段与段之间常用词语连接,承上启下,使文章行文连贯,逻辑严密。为突出主题作者可能采用不同的写作手法来组织文章,通过举例、比较、类比等手法来透彻阐明主题观点。高考对这类题型的考查主要体现在以下几个方面:

  1. 确定指代关系。最常见的提问方式是:The underlined word “they/it/…” in paragraph… refers to… …

  2. 对句子意义或作用的理解。最常见的提问方式是:The sentence “… …” in paragraph … means ….; The example of … … in para….is used to illustrate/show … ….

  3. 对段落大意或段落作用的理解。最常见的提问方式是:The last paragraph mainly tell us that … …; The purpose of writing Paragraph … is …. ….

  4. 对文章组织结构的理解。最常见的提问方式是:How is the passage organized?;Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

  在上述几类题中考生感觉难做的题是第四类, 这类题是近两年来出现的主要考查议论文结构的命题新方式,且逐步得到语言教育专家们的认可。并逐步推广到对其他文体结构的考查。分析这一类的题我们看出:对文章组织结构的考查不外乎两个层次。一是按段落的组织方法理解文章的结构,一是按写作方法(论证方法)理解文章的结构。

  首先,看看这样考查从段落层次理解文章的结构。这类题经常用到的提问方式是:Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage? 常见的段落结构有如下几种情况:

  ①           ①                ①                ①

  ②            ②  ③          ② ③ ④

  ④

  ③    ④

  ⑤          ⑤               ⑤             ②③④⑤

  图1          图2              图4               图5

  图1表明:①(Paragraph 1)是主题段(提出论题或论点),②、③段是就同一论据或者问题的同一方面作论述,④用另一论据材料或者从问题的另一方面论述,⑤段是结论段或者是用来重述论题、强调论点的段落。同样我们很容易理解图2、3、4所示的段落结构的意义。

  下面具体看看05年江苏卷E篇:

  The twentieth century saw greater changes than any century before changes for the better, changes for the worse, changes that brought a lot of benefits to human beings, changes that put man in danger .Many things caused the changes, but, in my opinion, the most important was the progress in science.

  Scientific research in physics and biology has vastly broadened our views. It has given us a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter and of the universe, it has brought us a better understanding of the nature of life and of its continuous development. Technology in the application of science has made big advances that have benefited us in nearly every part of life.

  The continuation of such activities in the twenty-first century will result in even greater advantages to human beings: in pure science—a wider and deeper knowledge in all fields of learning; in applied science—a more reasonable sharing of material benefits, and better protection of the environment.

  Sadly, however, there is another side to the picture. The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankind. The application of science and technology to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction has created a real danger to the continued existence of the human race on this planet. We have seen this happen in the case of nuclear weapons, Although their actual use has so far occurred only in the Second World War, the number of nuclear weapons that were produced and made ready for use was so large that if the weapons had actually been used, the result could have been the ruin of the human race, as well as of many kinds of animals.

  William Shakespeare said. “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn(纱线), good and ill together. “The above brief review of the application of only one part of human activities—science seems to prove what Shakespeare said. But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war?

  72.Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

  A.           B.               C.            D.

  ①           ①                ①                ①

  ②            ②  ③          ② ③ ④

  ④

  ③    ④

  ⑤          ⑤               ⑤             ②③④⑤

  (①=Paragraph 1,②=Paragraph 2, ③=Paragraph 3, ④=Paragraph 4,⑤=Paragraph 5)

  理解文章段落结构,我们很容易找到答案A。

  接下来再来看看这样从论证方法上考查对议论文结构的理解。掌握了议论文常见的写作方法,我们不难理解议论文的论证过程。从论证方法上讲,常见的议论文结构有以下两类:

  一、Put forward a question →Analyze the question → Solve the question 这就是“提出问题、分析问题、解决问题”的过程;二、Argument/idea → Evidence → conclusion/ restating the idea

  这就是“由论点到论据到结论或者强调论点”的过程。

  对说明文、夹叙夹议类文章结构的理解,只要我们弄清段落意义和段落之间的关系,很容易理解其结构。看看下面的例题我们也许会得到一些启发。例1:

  I receive a lot of emails every time a column is published in 21st Century. The majority of questions I get are like this: “My English is still very poor, could you please give me some advice?” Since this kind of question is so big and so vague, any answers will be too broad or too general. In fact, asking questions is an art that needs training and practice in itself. And I would like to offer the following tips:

  Always contextualize your question. If you really want to ask for advice on something, you need to provide a brief description of how you came up with the question and how you can benefit from asking it. For instance, if you need to improve your English, you need to state the skill area you are in the greatest need of improving, and what difficulties you encounter that cause you so many problems

  The second piece of advice is that your question should be focused and specific. By that I mean that you might have a lot of questions, but choose the one that is most important and at the same time the least complicated.

  Third, you can practise asking one question in multiple ways. For instance, if you are interested in knowing how you can boost your confidence in speaking, you might consider asking: “I often feel nervous before I ask a question, how can I overcome my anxiety?” “Could you share with me your experience of speaking in front of others?”

  Of course, the best way to ask good questions is through the practice of questioning. I highly encourage you to seek opportunities to ask questions. It takes time to be a really good questioner.

  How is the text organized?

  A.Topic---argument----description

  B.Opinion—discussion---explanation

  C.Main idea---comparison--- supporting examples

  D.Topic ----argument----conclusion

  解析:文章一开始就提出本文要讲的中心, 然后进行论述, 最后得出结论。由此,我们不难得出答案是D。

  例2:

  (05 浙江卷 C 篇)

  In the course of working my way through school, I took many jobs I would rather forget. But none of these jobs was as dreadful as my job in an apple plant. The work was hard; the pay was poor; and, most of all, the working conditions were terrible.

  First of all, the job made huge demands on my strength. For ten hours a night, I took boxes that rolled down a metal track and piled them onto a truck. Each box contained twelve heavy bottles of apple juice. I once figured out that I was lifting an average of twelve tons of apple juice every night.

  I would not have minded the difficulty of the work so much if the pay had not been so poor. I was paid the lowest wage of that time—two dollars an hour. Because of the low pay, I felt eager to get as much as possible. I usually worked twelve hours a night but did not take home much more than $ 100 a week.

  But even more than the low pay, what made me unhappy was the working conditions. During work I was limited to two ten-minute breaks and an unpaid half hour for lunch. Most of my time was spent outside loading trucks with those heavy boxes in near-zero-degree temperatures. The steel floors of the trucks were like ice, which made my feet feel like stone. And after the production line shut down at night and most people left, I had to spend two hours alone cleaning the floor.

  I stayed on the job for five months, all the while hating the difficulty of the work, the poor money, and the conditions under which I worked. By the time I left, I was determined never to go back there again.

  52.How is the text organized?

  A.Topic—Argument—Explanation

  B.Opinion—Discussion—Description

  C.Main idea—Comparison—Supporting examples

  D.Introduction—Supporting examples—Conclusion

  解析:这道题考查考生对文章组织结构的理解,把握了文章的脉络,我们不难得出答案:D。

  2007年广东高考英语试题题型(讨论稿)中提出把篇章结构作为专门的一节来考查:要求把标有A-F的句子或段落插入到文章中标记的适当位置,使文章意义完整,结构连贯。

  做好这一类题,要先理解全文的意义和结构,然后理解段落的意义和结构,分析句与句之间的关系,句与段落的关系。一般说来,文章中空格的地方主要是三类的句子或者段落:一是段落的主题句;二是和段落主题密切相关的细节句;三是段落或句子之间的过渡句/段。所以学会了分析句与句、句与段、段与段之间的关系做这类题并不难。下面我们来具体看一个例题:

  阅读下面短文,请将标有A-F的句子或段落插入到文章中标号为71-75的合适位置,使文章意义完整,结构连贯;其中一个段落或句子是多余的。

  Some twenty years ago, the performance of girls and boys in class was compared.   71   Now, the situation is reversed (颠倒) with girls consistently doing better than boys.

  72   John Dunsford, leader of the association of head teachers of secondary schools, says that the academic failure of boys is a problem which had its roots in society rather than the classroom. Girls, more than boys, see education as a passport to a good job. On the other hand, according to Penny Lewis, a head teacher, young men lack confidence, which they hide with a show of bravado (逞能). They’re uncertain about their place in society.  73

  Moreover, boys may learn in a different way from girls, preferring small amounts of work with immediate headlines rather than large projects stretching (延续) into the distance. And education is not seen as “cool”.  74

  This is not just a problem in Britain. In a study by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and UNESCO, girls did better than boys at reading at the age of 15 in all 45 countries. The UK ranks ninth out of the 45 countries for reading despite the fact that pupils in the UK spend less time reading than in most other countries.   75

  A. So, what has gone wrong with the boys, and what can be done about it?

  B. Interestingly, the study suggested that British children read for pleasure more often than those in other countries.

  C. Boys scored better in exams, so various measures were introduced to improve the performance of girls, including having single sex girl-only classes.

  D. This study can offer a great help to teachers and school leaders in terms of proper education to different people.

  E. Some boys grow up in families where there is no male role model to follow.

  F. As one contributoe to a BBC website put it, “Girls achieve more at school because they are watching the future while the boys are watching the girls.”

  解析:这是一篇说明文。首先通读文章了解文章的中心:全文分析当前在学校女生比男生表现好的原因。文章结构简单明了:首先提出问题,然后分析原因。接下来我们来逐段分析:

  第一段提出问题,71空后面说“现在情况颠倒过来了:女生比男生好了”,看了这句话,我们肯定能判断前一句话的大意应该是:先前的情况是男生比女生表现好。那就从选项中去看哪个句子表达的是这个意思。快速浏览A-F选项,我们得到答案C。

  第二段分析原因。段首的空格72,应该是一个承上启下的过渡句。浏览选项,我们迅速得到答案A。段尾的73空应该是一个细节句,对前一句具体说明,能够具体说明They’re uncertain about their place in society一句的只有选项E。

  第三段进一步分析原因。74空应该是个细节句,详细阐明男生比女生表现差的原因。这里我们不难找到答案F。

  第四段说明这种现象的普遍存在。段尾的75空是一个接续前句的细节句。浏览剩余的选项,我们很肯定地找到答案B。

  【实战演练练习十三】(05 江西卷 E 篇)

  Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools?

  A supporter of co-educational schools would probably say that schools should be like the societies they belong to .In Hong Kong, men and women mix socially on a day-to-day basis .In many fields men are even likely to have female bosses. It is, therefore, desirable that boys and girls grow up together, go to school together, and prepare themselves for a society that does not value sexual separation.

  Some would go on to argue further that growing up with members of the opposite sex is important for personal development. Regular contact(接触)can remove the strange ideas about the opposite-sex and lead to more natural relationships. Single-sex conditions are seen as leading to more extreme opinions, and possibly even as encouraging homosexuality(同性恋), though there is no proof that this is the case.

  Those who are against coeducation often also fix their attention on the sexual side. Some parents fear that close contact with members of the opposite sex is dangerous for teenagers. They want their children to be attentive to their studies. Such parents feel uncomfortable with modern ways and the free mixing of the sexes.

  A stronger argument comes from research into school results. Girls grow up earlier than

  boys ,tend to be more orderly and are likely to be better at languages. In a mixed class ,boys who might do well in a single-sex class become discouraged and take on the rule of troublemaker. Certainly in the UK this situation has greatly alarmed (惊动)the government for it to be encouraging co-educational schools to have some single-sex classes. In the UK the best schools are all single-sex, strongly suggesting that co-education is not the best answer. This may, however, not be as simple as it looks. It may simply be that the famous old schools that attract the best students happen to be single-sex, rather than that being single-sex makes them better schools.

  72.In the third paragraph, by saying “though there is no proof that this is the case”, the writer means that         .

  A.students in single-sex schools will certainly become homosexual

  B.students in co-educational schools cannot have extreme opinions

  C.students in co-educational schools are likely to be homosexual

  D.single-sex school conditions may or may not have effects on the students

  【实战演练练习十四】(04 重庆卷 D 篇)

  Have you ever had the strange feeling that you were being watched? You turned around and, sure enough, someone was looking right at you!

  Parapsychologists (灵学家) say that humans have a natural ability to sense when someone is looking at them. To research whether such a “sixth sense”really exists, Robert Baker, a psychologist(心理学家)at the University of Kentucky, performed two experiments.

  In the first one, Baker sat behind unknowing people in public places and stared at the backs of their heads for 5 to 15 minutes. The subjects(受试者)were eating, drinking, reading,studying, watching TV, or working at a computer. Baker made sure that the people could not tell that he was sitting behind them during those periods. Later, when he questioned the subjects, almost all of them said they had no sense that someone was staring at them.

  For the second experiment, Baker told the subjects that they would be stared at from time to time from behind a two way mirror in a laboratory setting. The people had to write down when they felt they were being stared at and when they weren’t. Baker found that the subjects were no better at telling when they were stared at and when they weren’t .Baker found that the subjects were no better at telling when they were stared at than if they had just guessed.

  Baker concludes that people do not have the ability to sense when they’re being stared at. If people doubt the outcome of his two experiments, said Baker, “I suggest they repeat the experiments and see for themselves.”

  68. The purpose of the two experiments is to        .

  A. explain when people can have a sixth sense

  B. show how people act while being watched in the lab

  C. study whether humans can sense when they are stared at

  D. prove why humans have a sixth sense

  【实战演练练习十五】

  阅读下面短文,并将文后标有A-F 的句子(或段落)插入文章中标号为71-75的合适位置,使短文结构完整。其中有一个句子(或段落)是多余的。

  She is widely seen as proof that good looks can last forever. But, at nearly 500 years of age, time is catching up with the Mona Lisa.

  71

  “The thin, wooden panel on which the Mona Lisa is painted in oil has changed shape since experts checked it two years age,” the museum said.   72  .

  73    “It is very interesting that when you’re not looking at her, she seems to be smiling, and then you look at her and she stops,” said Professor Margaret Livingstone of Harvard University, “It’s because direct vision is excellent at picking up detail, but less suited to looking at shadows. Da Vinci painted the smile in shadows.”

  74    Da Vinci himself loved it so much that he always carried it with him, until it was eventually sold to France’s King Francis I in 1519.

  In 1911, the painting was stolen from the Louvre by a former employee, who took it out of the museum hidden under his coat. He said he planned to return it to Italy. The painting was sent back to France two years later.

  75

  A. Nearly 6 million people go to see the Mona Lisa every year, many attracted by the mystery of her smile.

  B. However, the actual history of the Mona Lisa is just as mysterious as the smile.

  C. Visitors have notice the changes but repairing the world’s most famous painting is not easy. Experts are not sure about the materials the Italian artist used and their current chemical state.

  D. The health of the famous picture, painted by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1905, is getting worse by the year, according to the Louvre Museum where it is housed.

  E. The picture is now so valuable that no one can tell its exact price. Therefore, many thieves tried to steal it in any way they could think of.

  F. During World War II, French did the painting in small towns to keep it out of the hands of German forces. Like many old ladies, the Mona Lisa has some interesting stories to tell.

 

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