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首页 > 高考总复习 > 高考知识点 > 英语高频考点 > 2020高考英语高频考点——细节理解题巧突破

2020高考英语高频考点——细节理解题巧突破

2020-02-19 10:41:20高考网整理

  2020高考即将开战,你准备好了吗?高考网小编为各位考生整理了一些高频考点,供大家参考阅读!

  考点1

  直接细节题

  直接细节题也就是事实认定类细节题,该题型是指原文中提到了某个(些)人、事物、现象或者理论,题干针对原文具体内容提问。此类题目大部分都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析对比,找出答案。此类题目相对简单,只要考生认真细心,得分比较容易。此类题目常用when, where, what, why, which, who, how等疑问词引出问题。如:

  Where can you buy a souvenir at Pacific Science Center?

  Which play will be performed by the National Theatre of China?

  When can you see a play in Hebrew?

  What are tourists required to do to go on Holiday Light Tour?

  Who made a great contribution to the civil\|rights movement in the U.S.?

  Which flight did the women put Peter on first?

  【典例1】

  (2017·全国卷Ⅱ·A篇)...National Theatre of China    Beijing | Chinese

  This great occasion(盛会)will be the National Theatre of China  is first visit to the UK.The companyis productions show the new face of 21st century Chinese theatre. This production of Shakespeareis Richard Ⅲ will be directed by the Nationalis Associate Director, Wang Xiaoying.

  Date & Time: Saturday 28 April, 2.30pm & Sunday 29 April, 1.30pm & 6.30pm

  Marjanishvili TheatreTbilisi | Georgian

  ...

  Date & Time: Friday 18 May, 2.30 pm & Saturday 19 May, 7.30pm

  Deafinitely Theatre    London | British Sign Language(BSL)

  ...

  Date & Time: Tuesday 22 May, 2.30pm & Wednesday 23 May,7.30pm

  Habima National Theatre   Tel Aviv | Hebrew

  The Habima is the centre of Hebrew\|language theatre worldwide. Founded in Moscow after the 1905 revolution, the company eventually settled in Tel Aviv in the late 1920s. Since 1958, they have been recognised as the national theatre of Israel. This production of Shakespeare is The Merchant of Venice marks their first visit to the UK.Date & Time: Monday 28 May, 7.30pm & Tuesday 29 May, 7.30pm

  21.Which play will be performed by the National Theatre of China?

  A. Richard Ⅲ.       B. Loveis Labouris Lost.

  C. As You Like It.   D. The Merchant of Venice.

  23.When can you see a play in Hebrew?

  A. On Saturday 28 April.      B. On Sunday 29 April.

  C. On Tuesday 22 May.       D. On Tuesday 29 May.

  【解析】选段属于广告类应用文,此类文章多设置以获取信息为主的细节理解题,即考查考生对广告信息的快速捕捉、对比分析和概括能力。上面两道题均针对文章中的事实细节进行提问,属于直接信息题。解题时首先锁定题干中的关键信息,然后采用定位法,运用略读和查读的技巧在文中快速定位答案。

  21.根据题干中的"the National Theatre of China"可将答案定位于National Theatre of China部分中的"Shakespeare is Richard Ⅲ",故选A项。

  23.根据题干中的"in Hebrew"可将答案定位于Habima National Theatre部分,根据"Date & Time: Monday 28 May, 7.30pm & Tuesday 29 May, 7.30pm"可知,观众可以在5月29日星期二看用希伯来语表演的戏剧。A、B、C三项张冠李戴,A、B两项是National Theatre of China的戏剧演出时间安排,C项是Deafinitely Theatre的戏剧演出时间安排。21.A; 23.D。

  【技巧点拨】利用平行结构可快速定位信息。本文每一则广告中的信息和位置有一致性和对应性,只要看清一则广告中信息呈现的先后顺序,其他几则广告中信息的呈现顺序也就明白了。读完题干后就可以根据这一特征快速地查找所需要的信息。如看完第23题题干后,先去每则广告的第一行查找"Hebrew",再到这则广告的最后一行查找对应的日期,就能快速解题。

  【典例2】

  (2017·浙江卷·B篇)...How much sleep you need depends a lot on your age. Babies need a lot of rest: most of them sleep about 18 hours a day! Adults need about eight hours. For most school-age children, ten hours is ideal(理想的). But the new National Sleep Foundation survey found that 35% of 10- to 12-year-olds get only seven or eight hours. And guess what almost half of the surveyed kids said they do before bedtime?Watch TV.    ...

  26.How many hours of sleep do 11-year-olds need every day?

  A. 7 hours. B. 8 hours. C. 10 hours. D. 18 hours.

  【解析】题干中的关键信息是11-year-olds和need。根据选段中的"For most school-age children, ten hours is ideal(理想的)"可知,11岁的孩子属于学龄儿童这一范围,所以每天需要睡10个小时。根据选段可知,成人需要的睡眠时间是大约8个小时,婴儿每天睡大约18个小时,国家睡眠基金会调查发现35%的10至12岁的孩子每天只睡7个或8个小时。C。

  考点2

  综合细节题

  综合细节题一般需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语意上的转换,两者存在表达上的差异,有时需要综合利用多处信息并对相关信息整合后进一步甄别才能得出答案。综合细节题主要涉及语意转化题和数字计算题。

  【典例3】

  (2017·全国卷Ⅰ·B篇)I work with Volunteers for Wildlife, a rescue and education organization at Bailey Arboretum in Locust Valley. Trying to help injured, displaced or sick creatures can be heartbreaking; survival is never certain.However, when it works, it is simply beautiful.

  I got a rescue call from a woman in Muttontown. She had found a young owl(猫头鹰) on the ground. When I arrived, I saw a 2-to 3-week-old owl. It had already been placed in a carrier for safety.

  I examined the chick(雏鸟)and it seemed fine. If I could locate the nest, I might have been able to put it back, but  no luck. My next work was to construct a nest and anchor it in a tree

  ....

  25.Why was the author called to Muttontown?

  A. To rescue a woman.     B. To take care of a woman.

  C. To look at a baby owl.    D. To cure a young owl.

  【解析】根据第二段中的"I got a rescue call from a woman in Muttontown. She had found a young owl(猫头鹰) on the ground"可知,这位女士给作者打电话是为了让作者去救助一只猫头鹰雏鸟。短文中没有信息支撑选项A、B,故可排除;根据第三段的第一句"I examined the chick(雏鸟)and it seemed fine"可知这只猫头鹰雏鸟并未受伤,故可排除D。C。

  【误区警示】本题的得分率很低,很多考生先入为主,看到文章第一段中的"Trying to help injured, displaced or sick creatures can be heartbreaking",且在做本题时又没有精读具体细节,潜意识里认为作者的工作是救助受伤的小生物,从而误选D项,这是典型的主观臆断错误。

  【典例4】

  (2017·全国卷Ⅲ·B篇)...The film classic The Last Picture Show was the last movie shown in the old theater. Though the movie is 30 years old, most of the 250 seats were filled with teary\|eyed audience wanting to say good\|bye to the old building. Theater owner Ed Bradford said he chose the movie because it seemed appropriate. The movie is set in a small town where the only movie theater is preparing to close down.    ...

  25.Why was The Last Picture Show put on?

  A. It was an all\|time classic.

  B. It was about the history of the town.

  C. The audience requested it.

  D. The theater owner found it suitable.

  【解析】根据选段中的"Theater owner Ed Bradford said he chose the movie because it seemed appropriate"可知,放映电影The Last Picture Show是因为影院老板认为它比较合适。原文中的appropriate和选项D中的suitable为同义词,意为"合适的"。A项表示它一直是一部经典电影,但是这不是选择它的原因;B项颠倒是非,这部电影以一个小镇为背景,这个镇上的唯一的电影院即将关门,而并不是关于小镇的历史的;C选项无中生有,选段中没有提及,而且文章说的是影院老板选择了这部电影。D。

  【典例5】

  (2017·全国卷Ⅰ·C篇)Some of the world?s most famous musicians recently gathered in Paris and New Orleans to celebrate the first annual International Jazz Day. UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)recently set April 30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying(联合)voice across cultures.    ...

  28.Why did UNESCO set April 30 as International Jazz Day?

  A. To remember the birth of jazz.

  B. To protect cultural diversity.

  C. To encourage people to study music.

  D. To recognize the value of jazz.

  【解析】根据选段中的"...set April 30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying (联合)voice across cultures"可知,把4月30日定为国际爵士乐日,目的是提高(人们)对爵士乐及其重要性的认识,同时还有其在跨文化交际方面的潜质。原文中的"raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential"和选项D中的"recognize the value of jazz"语意相同,故选D。A项"纪念爵士乐的诞生"、B项"保护文化的多样性"和C项"鼓励人们学习音乐"三个选项都是无中生有,选段没有提及,切勿主观臆断。D。

  【规律总结】综合细节题干扰项的特点:

  (1)杜撰事实,无中生有(如调研5中选项A、B、C)。文中没有提到任何相关信息,是命题人故意设置的干扰项。

  (2)偷梁换柱,以假乱真。采用原文中的句式和大部分词汇,但换了个别词,改变了原意或范围。

  (3)半真半假,虚虚实实。干扰项与原文相关细节部分相同,部分相悖。

  (4)文不对题,滥竽充数。干扰项是文中的事实细节,但与题干要求不符。

  正确选项有以下特征:

  (1)用同义词或近义词替换原文中的关键词。如调研4中的appropriate和suitable。

  (2)词性或者语态有所变化。把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,或改变原文中句子的语态,主要是主动语态与被动语态的转换。

  (3)语言简化。把原文中的复杂语言进行简化或概括,然后设置为答案。

  (4)正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达。

  【典例6】

  (2017·北京卷·B篇)young minds!TOKNOW Magazine is a big hit in the world of childrenis publishing, bringing a unique combination of challenging ideas and good fun to young fans every month....SUBSCRIBE NOW

  □Annual Subscription

  Europe £55      Rest of World £65

  □Annual Subscription with Gift Pack

  Includes a Mammoth Map, a Passport Puzzle Booklet, and Subscription

  Europe £60       Rest of World £70

  Refund Policy — the subscription can be cancelled within 28 days and you can get your money back.

  61.How much should you pay if you make a 12-month subscription to TOKNOW with gift pack from China?

  A. £55.B. £60.C. £65.D. £70.

  【解析】本题直接考查数字信息。由题干中的几个关键点12-month, with gift pack和from China可以锁定价格为£70。这里利用同义词可找出正确答案,a 12-month subscription和Annual Subscription同义,China属于"Rest of World"。D

  【解题技巧】数字计算类细节题通常分为两类:直接考查和计算考查。对于直接考查的,应该根据原文信息确定答案;对于需要计算的,一般要求考生能根据阅读材料中给出的相关数据,找出计算关系,通过计算,得出正确的答案。这类计算题一般来说比较简单,关键是要弄清各数据间的逻辑关系,选准计算的数据,弄清单位换算关系,确定计算方法,问题便迎刃而解了。做题时,应该先阅读题目,然后带着题目中的关键词去读文章,在阅读的同时对相关的数字、时间、年代等作出标记,以便读完文章后能快速地运用这些信息进行相应的计算。

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