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首页 > 高考总复习 > 高考知识点 > 英语高频考点 > 高考英语阅读理解考点

高考英语阅读理解考点

2021-09-25 11:44:44高考网整理

高考英语阅读理解考点


  Ⅰ.阅读理解题策略

  一、先看题干,带着问题读文章。


  即先看试题,再读文章。阅读题干,首先要掌握问题的类型,分清是客观信息题还是主观判断题。其次,了解试题题干以及各个选项所包含的信息,然后有针对性地对文章进行扫读,对有关信息进行快速定位,再将相关信息进行整合、甄别、分析、对比,有根有据地排除干扰项,选出正确答案。

  二、速读全文,了解大意知主题。

  近几年的高考阅读速度大约是每分钟40词左右。必须在十分有限的时间内运用略读、扫读、跳读等技巧快速搜寻关键词、主题句,捕捉时空、顺序、情节、人物、观点,并且理清文章脉络,把握语篇实质。速读全文对于主旨大意题的解决尤其有效,能快速抓住主干,确定好答案。

  三、详读细节,理顺思路与文章脉络。

  文章绝不是互不相干的句子的堆砌。作者为文,有脉可循。如记叙文多以人物为中心,以时间或空间为线索,按事件的发生、发展、结局展开故事;议论文则包含论点、论据、结论三大要素,通过解释、举例来阐述观点。

  四、逻辑推理,做好深层理解题。

  深层理解主要包括归纳概括题(中心思想,加标题等)和推理判断题,是阅读理解中的难点。深层理解是一种创造性的思维活动。它必须忠实于原文,以文章提供的事实和线索为依据,立足已知推断未知,不能凭空想像,随意揣测;读者要对文字的表面信息进行分析、挖掘和逻辑推理,不能就事论事,以偏概全。推理题在提问中常用的词有:conclude,infer,imply,suggest,indicate等。

  五、猜词悟义,扫除阅读拦路虎。

  猜词是应用英语阅读的重要能力,也是高考中常用的题型。它不但需要准确无误地理解上下文,而且要有较大的泛读量,掌握或认识较多的课外词汇。我们要学会“顺藤摸瓜”,通过构词法,语法,定义,同位语,对比,因果,常识,上下文等线索确定词义。

  Ⅱ.阅读理解常见问题及原因分析

  问题一:已经找对了题干与原文对应处,为何还做错?

  原因:

  ①精确定位:要看清真正的问题,即用信息词定位之后,要看清句子逻辑关系,弄清意思。

  ②学会看选项的方法:

  a.找最贴近原文意思的选项;

  b.去除选项间的相同信息,专门关注区别点;

  c.分清褒贬;

  d.分清程度大小,强烈关注选项中表内容的单词;

  e.看清范围,分清是整体还是局部。

  高频考点一 正确选项特征

  在阅读理解的备考过程中,明确阅读理解常设选项的特征是快速准确锁定答案的关键。高考英语阅读理解的正确选项一般通过以下途径设置:

  关键词直接复现:直接复现类可从问题中找到关键词,以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧迅速定位即可。此类题目较为简单,考查频率不高。

  对原文关键词进行同义转换、正话反说和细节概括:此类题目需对原文信息进行准确理解并简单推理,观察词义、词性及语态的变化。这是命题人常用的设题方式,复习时应掌握英语的多种表达法。

  一、同义转述

  从近几年的高考题来看,细节理解题不仅数量有所增加,而且难度也稍有加大,主要表现为题目信息与原文信息表达方式不一致。命题人一般会对文章细节加以转述来考查考生准确理解细节的能力。转述的主要方式有以下三种:

  1.同义词转化:把原文中的一些词换成意义相近的词,设为正确选项。

  2.词性或语态等的变化:把原文中的词变换一下词性,或者改变原文句子的语态,用另一种表达转述原文信息。

  3.语言简化概括:把原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化或概括成为正确答案。

  例1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch” four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.

  30.What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard?

  A.It’ll be environment-friendly.

  B.It’ll reach consumers soon.

  C.It’ll be made of plastics.

  D.It’ll help speed up typing.

  【答案】B

  【解析】细节理解题。根据上段中的最后一句“The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.”可知,该研究团队希望在不久的将来将智能键盘推向市场,故选B。

  二、正话反说

  正话反说是阅读理解题目中的一个难点,通常有以下几个高频考向:

  1.It looks/sounds like/as if类:表示看/听起来好像是,实际上并不是。

  2.虚拟语气句:用虚拟语气来表述与事实相反的情况,让读者推断事实内容。

  3.让步论述:先假设作者的观点反面成立,从而引出一系列荒谬的、不合理的结果,倒过来证明作者观点的正确性。

  4.反问句。

  例2.(2019·北京卷)The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don’t know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈). We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it’s too little, too late. By the time these “solutions”(解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it’s not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you’re hearing is actually real.

  38.How does the author feel about the solutions to the problem of robocalls?

  A.Panicked.           B.Confused.

  C.Embarrassed.     D.Disappointed.

  【答案】D

  【解析】推理判断题。根据上段中的“By the time these ‘solutions’(解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means.”可知,等到这些“解决方案”被广泛使用时,不法分子就会转向更聪明的手段;由此可推知作者对自动语音电话问题的解决方案感到很失望,D项意为“失望的”,故选D。

  3. 理解概括

  阅读理解除了考查考生对细节信息的准确理解外, 还要求考生通过思维分析将信息进行归纳概括,使之系统化、条理化。

  例3.(2019·浙江卷)California has lost half its big trees since the 1930s, according to a study to be published Tuesday and climate change seems to be a major factor(因素).

  The number of trees larger than two feet across has declined by 50 percent on more than 46, 000 square miles of California forests, the new study finds. No area was spared or unaffected, from the foggy northern coast to the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the San Gabriels above Los Angeles. In the Sierra high country, the number of big trees has fallen by more than 55 percent; in parts of southern California the decline was nearly 75 percent.

  Many factors contributed to the decline,  said Patrick McIntyre, an ecologist who was the lead author of the study. Woodcutters targeted big trees. Housing development pushed into the woods. Aggressive wildfire control has left California forests crowded with small trees that compete with big trees for resources(资源).

  But in comparing a study of California forests done in the 1920s and 1930s with another one between 2001 and 2010, McIntyre and his colleagues documented a widespread death of big trees that was evident even in wildlands protected from woodcutting or development.

  The loss of big trees was greatest in areas where trees had suffered the greatest water shortage. The researchers figured out water stress with a computer model that calculated how much water trees were getting in comparison with how much they needed, taking into account such things as rainfall, air temperature, dampness of soil, and the timing of snowmelt(融雪).

  Since the 1930s, McIntyre said, the biggest factors driving up water stress in the state have been rising temperatures, which cause trees to lose more water to the air, and earlier snowmelt, which reduces the water supply available to trees during the dry season.

  30.What can be a suitable title for the text?

  A.California’s Forests: Where Have All the Big Trees Gone?

  B.Cutting of Big Trees to Be Prohibited in California Soon

  C.Why Are the Big Trees Important to California Forests?

  D.Patrick McIntyre: Grow More Big Trees in California

  【答案】A

  【解析】标题归纳题。根据全文可知,文章主要讲述了美国加州森林中大树数量急剧下降的现象,并分析了其原因。因此A项能很好地概括全文。故选A。

 

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